Most xylene that is accidentally released evaporates into the air, although some is released into rivers or lakes. While there are proposed alternatives to xylene in tissue processing, it is still considered the best chemical for tissue processing and staining purposes. Paraxylene is one of the three isomers of xylene. Solvent xylene often contains a small percentage of ethylbenzene. This aids histopathology technicians who look at tissues to determine the presence of disease. Learn more. Xylene is used as a solvent. What Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is needed when working with xylene? High-octane gas costs more as it increases the power in your engine. The chemical and physical properties of xylene differ according to the respective isomers. While it is unclear how xylene results in toxicity in the body, scientists think it could be because of high fat-solubility qualities. [5][6][7] The ratio of isomers can be shifted to favor the highly valued p-xylene via the patented UOP-Isomar process[8] or by transalkylation of xylene with itself or trimethylbenzene. You can add xylene yourself to increase the octane level in your gas. gallon or 8.72 lb/imp gallon) and thus is less dense than water. Those who work regularly with xylene should be given routine medical examinations, and have body fluids monitored. From: Public Health England. These tissues can then be used in microscopy. Xylene is also used as: - Cleaning Agent - Paint Thinner and Remover - Varnish - Airplane Fuel - Gasoline - Shellac - Rust Preventatives - Pesticides - Lacquers. Paraxylene, also called p-xylene, is a chemical essential to the process of manufacturing PET plastic bottles, x-ray film and polyester fiber. Exposed individuals should be removed from the contamination, and medical assistance should be sought. Paraxylene is used to make terephthalic acid, or TPA; purified terephthalic acid, or PTA; and dimethyl-terephthalate, or DMT. uses In chemical industry: Xylene Ortho -xylene is used mostly to produce phthalic anhydride, an important intermediate that leads principally to various coatings and plastics. Meta-xylene is a main component of commercial-grade xylene. Longer exposure to xylene yields greater risk. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4 Solvent applications and industrial purposes Xylene is used as a solvent. Long-term exposure may lead to headaches, irritability, depression, insomnia, agitation, extreme tiredness, tremors, hearing loss, impaired concentration and short-term memory loss. For large scale use of this product: use non-sparking ventilation systems, approved explosion-proof equipment and intrinsically safe electrical systems in areas where this product is used and stored. lol n. 1. [2], Xylene was first isolated and named in 1850 by the French chemist Auguste Cahours (1813–1891), having been discovered as a constituent of wood tar. For similar reasons, it is often the active ingredient in commercial products for ear wax (cerumen) removal.(1). Precursor to benzene and xylene. Xylene is used in the laboratory to make baths with dry ice to cool reaction vessels,[15] and as a solvent to remove synthetic immersion oil from the microscope objective in light microscopy. It is flammable at room temperature. Chemical formula: C8H10. It is also found in small proportions in gasoline and jet fuel. In drilling mud testing, a 50/50 xylene/ isopropanol (IPA) mixture had been used to break oil-mud emulsions prior to titrations to measure alkalinity , chloride and calcium. For light microscopy, three techniques can be used: the paraffin technique, frozen sections, and semithin sections. Xylene, also called xylol, dimethyl benzene, Violet 3, and methyl toluene, is an isomer that can be found in three forms. [23][24][25], Xylene is also a skin irritant and strips the skin of its oils, making it more permeable to other chemicals. This helps with slide staining so that features of the tissue are more easily viewed under a microscope. Xylene is used in the production of terephthalic acid monomer. The skin quickly absorbs it. It may seem odd, but solvents are chemical composites that are similar on … Always review material safety data sheets in areas that use xylene and other powerful chemicals. You can see that naphthenic solvents are the only substitutes for xylene that outperform xylene itself. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. Xylene. The use of impervious gloves and masks, along with respirators where appropriate, is recommended to avoid occupational health issues from xylene exposure. Xylene is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances), particularly in the printing, rubber and leather industries. A lifelong writer, Dianne is also a content manager and science fiction & fantasy novelist. Toluene is a good solvent that is commonly used in the production of paints. Small quantities occur in gasoline and aircraft fuels. It is manufactured as a white crystalline powder. The chief use of p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid is as a reagent to determine serum cholesterol levels. Any of three colorless flammable isomeric benzene derivatives, C8H10, obtained from wood and coal tar. Oral LD50 for rats is 4300 mg/kg. A fourth isomer is ethylbenzene. It can be made by crystallization and adsorption. And when preparing slides for microscopy, xylene can remove any remaining wax from slides. The nauseatingly sweet smell of xylene serves as a warning for its toxic nature. The boiling point for each isomer is around 140 Â°C (284 Â°F). Martindale, David C. and Kuchar, Paul J., "Recherches sur les huiles légéres obtenues dans la distillation du bois", Production of xylenes from light aliphatic hydrocarbons via dehydrocyclodimerization and methylation, "Xylene (Mixed Isomers), Air Toxic Hazard Summary)", "Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures", Paraxylene-Orthoxylene | Prices, News & Market Analysis, Appendix I, Painting Conservation Catalog, "Auditory neuropathy in a patient exposed to xylene: case report", "HIPPURIC and METHYL HIPPURIC ACIDS in urine", "Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and xylene exposure", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xylene&oldid=996198659, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 02:38. The demand for isophthalic acid is relatively modest so m-xylene is rarely sought (and hence the utility of its conversion to the o- and p-isomers). Xylene, any of three isomeric dimethylbenzenes [which have the same chemical formula, C 6 H 4 (CH 3) 2, but different molecular structure], used as solvents, as components of aviation fuel, and as raw materials for the manufacture of dyes, fibres, and films. Xylidine definition, any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture. Most sports cars or racing cars need 92 octane gas rather than just the standard 87 level of octane most cars take. The great attraction of PET is its versatility, its relative affordability, lack of shattering and its ability to be recycled. Xylene is a petroleum-based synthetic chemical that is colorless, flammable, and produces a sweet odor. Visual impairment and difficulty may also result from xylene exposure. Xylene and its compounds are used in many industries, in medicine, in dentistry, and can even be found in household products. [1][4] Commercial or laboratory-grade xylene produced usually contains about 40-65% of m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. J. Dianne Dotson is a science writer with a degree in zoology/ecology and evolutionary biology. Also, any xylene vapor trapped in clothing can affect helpers. At an exposure between 200 and 500 ppm, symptoms can include feeling "high", dizziness, weakness, irritability, vomiting, and slowed reaction time. Like the individual isomers, the mixture is colorless, sweet-smelling, and highly flammable. Additional uses of xylene include its addition to pesticides and disinfectants. The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. There are not many broad uses for p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid. They also occur in crude oil in concentrations of about 0.5–1%, depending on the source. Since it naturally occurs in petroleum, it is not surprising that it is also found in gasoline and jet fuel. Xylene also poses risks to skin and eyes and is considered a skin irritant. In dentistry, xylene can be used to dissolve gutta percha, a material used for endodontics (root canal treatments). The xylene mixture is a slightly greasy, colorless liquid commonly encountered as a solvent. In this case it is used as clearing agent. Xylene’s structure consists of two methyl groups attached to a six-carbon ring. In terms of volume, xylene is one of the top 30 chemicals produced in the United States. Not intended for sale or use in California. While xylene serves many valuable uses across multiple industries, it comes with its own risks to those who work closely with this chemical compound. Nitration. It is used as a solvent and emulsion breaker in workover operations to clean up reservoirs. One of the chief uses of xylene is as a lubricant, and it is so used in motor oil or brake fluid. Xylene is a component of lubricants in motor oil, paints and paint thinners, polishes, waxes, antifreeze, sealants, adhesives, and even gasoline and cigarettes. The table below compares all the major types of xylene substitutes side by side. There is very little information available that isolates xylene from other solvent exposures in the examination of these effects. A xylene (from Greek ξυλος, xylos, "wood") is an aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl substituents. It is a good cleaning agent for silicon wafers, steel and to sterilize many substances. Breathing in xylene can cause dizziness, nausea, fainting, headache and even vomiting. Fixed tissue is then dehydrated, removing water from the tissue by escalating grades of alcohol. 2. Although conversion to terephthalic acid is the dominant chemical conversion, xylenes are precursors to other chemical compounds. Xylene is used in many industries. Paraxylene boasts a number of uses in the polymer industry. This makes paraxylene absolutely essential in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, or PET. [3], Xylene exists in three isomeric forms. Alcohol, however, is not miscible with paraffin (something that is miscible can mix well with another substance). [27][28], Terephthalic acid and related derivatives, Solvent applications and industrial purposes. [1], The main effect of inhaling xylene vapor is depression of the central nervous system (CNS), with symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Thins Paints & Lacquers. These three chemicals are then used to make PET. Increased xylene additives are added to gasoline to increase the octane level. Since one of the paraxylene uses includes the synthesis of PTA, it also serves to make other compounds such as cyclohexanedimethanol, terephthaloyl chloride and various other polymers. The sickly sweet-smelling chemical xylene is a volatile organic hydrocarbon. Xylene is a colorless liquid and vapor. Once the sections are prepared, they are usually stained, to help distinguish the components of the tissue. It is a common component of ink, rubber, and adhesives. Xylene is used in some glue. WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Ethylbenzene and Cumene, which are known to the State of California to cause cancer. [6], Xylenes form azeotropes with water and a variety of alcohols. It is traditionally used in the leather, rubber, and paint industries, particularly as a solvent, a cleaning agent, and a paint thinner. It is crucial to wear safety goggles when working with xylene. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ZSM-5 is used to facilitate some isomerization reactions leading to mass production of modern plastics. As it happens, xylene is highly miscible with paraffin. xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. Therefore it is wise to remove persons from low-lying areas near the xylene contamination. In this way it could be soluble with lipids in the membranes of neurons, and could affect neuronal proteins as a result. Even smelling it can affect major organs. [26][27] The presence of methylhippuric acid can be used as a biomarker to determine exposure to xylene. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. [1] In 2011, a global consortium began construction of one of the world's largest xylene plants in Singapore. Figures in the table less than 1.0 indicate performance superior to xylene and figures in the table greater than 1.0 indicate performance inferior to xylene. One of the chief paraxylene uses is in polymer synthesis. See more. In this application, with a mixture of isomers, it is often referred to as xylenes or xylol. It was named after xylong, the Greek word for wood, because it was found in crude wood spirit. If the excess antiquing release was thoroughly removed before the original seal coat was applied * , the best way to fix sealer problems is to fill a pail with xylene, and use a natural-bristle brush (on a broom handle) to scrub the xylene onto the surface. Commercial or mixed xylene usually contains about 40-65% m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene and p-xylene and ethylbenzene. It is listed as a sulfonic acid and is considered a biochemical. Xylene is a component of lubricants in motor oil, paints and paint thinners, polishes, waxes, antifreeze, sealants, adhesives, and even gasoline and cigarettes. [13] In thinning paints and varnishes, it can be substituted for toluene where slower drying is desired, and thus is used by conservators of art objects in solubility testing. Klean-Strip® Xylene . At an exposure of 100 ppm, one may experience nausea or a headache. Paraxylene uses include precursor raw material for other substances. CDC Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxic Substances Portal: Xylenes, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: Xylene: An Overview of Its Health Hazards and Preventive Measures, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: Kerosene: Contributing Agent to Xylene as a Clearing Agent in Tissue Processing, Business Wire: Global Paraxylene Market 2017-2022: High Demand for Polyethylene Terephthalate – Research and Markets, MP Biomedicals, LLC: p-xylene-2-sulfonic Acid. The chemical formula for xylene is C8H10, or more specifically (C6H4)(CH3)2. Documents. Xylenes are released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from industrial sources, from auto exhaust, and through volatilization from their use as solvents. It is widely used in several industries as well as in dental and medical arenas. Xylene is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances), particularly in the printing, rubber and leather industries. 98% of p-xylene production, and half of all xylenes produced is consumed in this manner. Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: C 6 H 5 CH 3 + H 2 → C 6 H 6 + CH 4. [7][12] o-Xylene is an important precursor to phthalic anhydride. [14] Similarly it is a cleaning agent, e.g., for steel, silicon wafers, and integrated circuits. Xylene can react with strong acids and oxidizers. In histology, xylene is used to process and stain tissues. The paraffin technique is the most commonly used. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. However, prolonged exposure to xylene can be hazardous to the health of the user, and it is recommended to seek alternatives to avoid unsafe conditions. Information on xylene, for use in responding to chemical incidents. Several million tons are produced annually. Other drastic symptoms might include tremors, heart arrhythmias and pulmonary edema. Acute (short- People should take care around xylene, due to its inhalation and irritant risks. b) Also compute the air required if the operation is carried out in Qm= For example, when painting with lacquer, the wash of choice would be lacquer thinner. These conversions are catalyzed by zeolites.[1]. Other synonyms for xylene are dimethyl benzene, methyl toluene, xylol and mixed xylenes. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Because xylene is so efficient at removing fats, any contact with the skin will have the same effect. [10] The complexes of different isomers often have dramatically different properties from each other.[11]. Xylene is used, to a lesser extent, as a material in the chemical, plastics, and synthetic fiber industries and as an ingredient in the coating of fabrics and papers. It is primarily used as a solvent to remove paint, oil, grease, marker, and ink. In tissue processing, tissue has to be embedded in a medium (such as paraffin) to support it and allow it to be cut without damaging the tissue. Xylene is found in small amounts in airplane fuel and gasoline. As nouns the difference between toluene and xylene is that toluene is (organic compound) a colourless, inflammable liquid hydrocarbon, methylbenzene, ch 3 c 6 h 5, used as a solvent, in high-octane fuels and in the production of many chemical compounds while xylene is (chemistry) any of a group of three isomeric aromatic hydrocarbons, di-methyl-benzene, found in coal and wood tar. If you are still wondering about what is xylene used for in painting, then … A mixture of xylene isomers used as a solvent in making lacquers and rubber cement and as an aviation fuel. Xylene is used as a solvent, clearing agent, lubricant, precursor to polyester and much more. After staining, microscope slides are put in xylene prior to mounting with a coverslip. Xylene is a colorless mixture of chemically-related hydrocarbons that often finds use as a solvent for paints and printing inks. P-xylene-2-sulfonic acid, also called 2,5-Dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, is a sulfur compound containing xylene. Xylene in air can be smelled at concentrations as low as 0.08 to 3.7 ppm (parts of xylene per million parts of air) and can be tasted in water at 0.53 to 1.8 ppm. It is a volatile liquid giving off its gas. Similarly it is a cleaning agent for … Xylene is not classified as a carcinogen. For instance chlorination of both methyl groups gives the corresponding xylene dichlorides (bis(chloromethyl)benzenes) whilst mono-bromination yields xylyl bromide, a tear gas agent used in World War I. Xylene is flammable but of modest acute toxicity, with LD50 ranges from 200 to 5000 mg/kg for animals. In the petroleum industry, xylene is also a frequent component of paraffin solvents, used when the tubing becomes clogged with paraffin wax. The PET in turn is a chief ingredient in various plastic fibers and films. Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. For more information go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov. The major use of meta -xylene is in the production of isophthalic acid, which is used as a copolymerizing monomer to alter the properties of polyethylene terephthalate. Areas of application include the printing, rubber, and leather industries. This can lead to drying and cracking of the skin and dermatitis. The primary risks of xylene exposure include effects from inhalation or contact with the skin or eyes. What is Xylene? It is a common component of ink, rubber, and adhesive. Workers may be harmed from exposure to xylene. p-Xylene is the principal precursor to terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate, both monomers used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles and polyester clothing. Dianne features science as well as writing topics on her website, jdiannedotson.com. [20][clarification needed] A condition called chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy, commonly known as "organic solvent syndrome" has been associated with xylene exposure. [18], Hearing disorders have been also linked to xylene exposure, both from studies with experimental animals,[21][22] as well as clinical studies. Xylene… Xylene is used in some glue. The three isomeric xylenes each have a molecular formula of C 8 H 10, though the more informative semi-structural formula C 6 H 4 (CH 3) 2 is also used commonly. P-xylene-2-sulfonic acid is soluble in ethanol. Xylenes are produced mainly as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as reformate. Children are more greatly affected by xylene than adults, so extraordinary care must be taken to prevent their exposure. Xylene. Xylene is used as a solvent and in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. The isomers can be distinguished by the designations ortho- (o-), meta- (m-) and para- (p-), which specify to which carbon atoms (of the benzene ring) the two methyl groups are attached. What is Xylene Used for? Xylene can also cause headaches, dizziness, confusion, loss of muscle coordination, and in high doses, death. She spent nine years working in laboratory and clinical research. The density of each isomer is around 0.87 g/mL (7.26 lb/U.S. Xylene is an excellent solvent, especially for aromatic solids such as asphaltic materials. Food packaging also may contain PET, and it also serves as a polyester fiber component for such things as clothing and household fabrics. [18], Xylenes are metabolized to methylhippuric acids. Any ingestion by mouth should be taken very seriously as well by quickly obtaining medical aid. It’s used in the petroleum and wood processing industries. Xylene is one of the top chemicals produced in the U.S., and it is commonly derived from crude petroleum. In thinning paints and varnishes, it can be substituted for toluene where slower drying is desired. 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