World Health Organization. Epub 2012 Feb 11. The epithelia or inner linings of sweat and oil glands dry out and atrophy. Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A. Periodontal and other oral manifestations of immunodeficiency diseases. Does vitamin A deficiency – and the consequent low immunity – make children vulnerable to prolonged diarrhea infections? “Xerophthalmia and night blindness for the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency in individuals and populations.” (2014). Vitamin B-Complex Deficiency. A deficiency in any of these can cause problems. A. El-Shazly3. “The eye signs of vitamin A deficiency.” Community eye health 26, no. Adults with gastrointestinal diseases like celiac, bile duct disorder, or liver cirrhosis may be vulnerable.4 Here are some VAD-related health problems you should be aware of: When vitamin A deficiency (VAD) becomes prolonged, other eye infections can set in and lead to blindness or even death. Epidemiology of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in at-risk populations. Can increasing intake help? Children between 1 and 4 years are most susceptible to this condition.11. The Following table contains the list the diseases cause by the deficiency of each of the important Vitamins -: Vitamin Name Disease Names . Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Studies claim that even children immunized against measles can develop a mild form of keratoconjunctivitis if they have VAD and this can take months to disappear.17, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that children with measles who live in regions with known VAD be given a daily oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A (100,000 IU in infants) for 2 days. It is one of the major causes of night blindness in pregnant women. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to impair proper function of insulin- producing cells possibly leading to type 2 diabetes. Young children are particularly at risk since they need a higher intake of vitamin A in the growing years. Their susceptibility to VAD is higher in the third trimester of pregnancy when fetal growth and the mother’s own blood volume increases. Vitamin A is found in many foods like: leafy green vegetables; orange vegetables (carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin) eggs, and; cantaloupes; Vitamin A plays an important role in your vision.To see the full spectrum of light, your eye needs to produce certain pigments for your retina to work properly. Download all General Knowledge Questions & Answers PDF. Diagnosis is based on typical ocular findings and low vitamin A levels. McLaren, Donald Stewart and Kraemer, Klaus. Vitamin A deficiency stops the production of these pigments, leading to night blindness. [Gilbert, Clare. Human health, livelihoods and vitamin a | researchgate, the professional network for scientists. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation. It is common in poorer countries, especially among children and women of reproductive age, but is rarely seen in more developed countries. 84 (2013): 66. National Academies Press. Studies also suggest a link between lack of vitamin D in early life with later onset of type 1 diabetes. Lack of vitamin A causes various eye diseases. Young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. What Studies Say. Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. The conjunctiva, a fine membrane covering the front of the eye and inner surface of our eyelids, keeps these areas moist and friction-free so we can blink our eyes without irritation. “Prevention of vitamin A deficiency.” Institute of Medicine. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble compound that our bodies need: But when our body is deprived of vitamin A, the health problems that loom are worrisome. Manual on Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders (VADD). When there is a deficiency of vitamin A, certain changes may be observed: Patients with some types of skin cancer seem to have low levels of beta-carotene and vitamin A (retinol). Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional. [McLaren, Donald Stewart and Kraemer, Klaus. [Vitamin A deficiency: epidemiological aspects and control methods]. Yang, Hui Ming, Meng Mao, and Chaomin Wan. Vitamin A deficiency can result from inadequate intake, fat malabsorption, or liver disorders. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique. Conversely hypervitaminosis is the syndrome of symptoms caused by over-retention of fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Adults of normal health are generally protected from VAD because of the ability of the adult liver to store vitamin A for quite some time.15, Other than eye-related diseases, children with VAD are at high risk of catching common childhood infections such as measles and diarrhea. Vitamin D deficiency is the most common in the list of vitamin deficiency diseases. The advantages and drawbacks of each are discussed. Handb Clin Neurol. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers, 2012. In fact, xerophthalmia is the leading cause of blindness among children worldwide, but especially so in some developing countries if the diet contains insufficient vitamin A. The two-dose treatment appears to be associated with reduced mortality.18 Strangely, vitamin A treatment works only for children with VAD and may not be effective in measles treatment if the child does not have a deficiency. With corneal xerosis, the tear glands in the eye malfunction and no longer produce tears and mucus to keep the eye surface moist. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):8-14. doi: 10.1080/09286580802521325. Vitamin A works with proteins called opsins to produce a light-sensitive pigment called rhodopsin in our bodies. In one study from India on children aged between 2 and 9 years and suffering from severe diarrhea, it was observed that vitamin A supplements dramatically reduced the diarrhea within 48 hours. McLaren, Donald Stewart and Kraemer, Klaus. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers, 2012. However, each of these methods has drawbacks and advantages. Compromised Immunity. List Of Vitamin Deficiency Diseases. Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells caused when you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins. 10 Health Benefits Orange Juice Can Offer You, 10 Calcium-Rich Vegetables You Should Eat. “Vitamin A deficiency disorders in children”. When we don’t eat enough of these foods, VAD sets in, leading to various diseases.2 3 VAD can also be triggered by inefficient storage, transport, and absorption of vitamin A. In fact, sometimes the infections can get severe enough to be fatal.16, In countries where VAD is widespread, research has established that children under 2 years are at high risk of developing severe measles infections. The global prevalence of VADD is now well documented and World Health Organisation (WHO) receives information continuously for updating its data base on the subject.  |  Children with acute VAD are also usually malnourished. However, when one analyses plant, fungal and microbial cells, one would see thousands of compounds other than these called primary metabolites, e.g. People who are vulnerable to this condition include preschoolers, teenagers, and pregnant mothers. The ocular manifestations of xerophthalmia have been classified and a set of prevalence criteria for the detection of a problem of public health magnitude has been in use for more than two decades. The term "vitamin A deficiency disorders" (VADD) has been introduced to cover the whole clinical spectrum of disease. Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: nutrient Supplements in fractures and deformities! 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