If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. Insecticides labeled for sawfly control on the plant in question will also work if treatment is applied when larva are young. It is much easier to spray the trees for all of the scale insects listed in late winter to control the overwintering scales. The female sawfly inserts her eggs into the leaf in rows along the leaf veins. 2150 Beardshear Hall
The dogwood sawfly is an occasional pest of dogwood. Some species of sawfly leave a very characteristic feeding damage called windowpaning. Despite having a “caterpillar” appearance, these insects are actually related to bees and wasps. We have several common sawflies in Iowa that are bothersome to gardeners; the pearslug whose larvae feed on the leaves of a variety of fruit trees, the roseslug on roses, the scarlet oak sawfly that feeds on oak, the willow sawfly, and the European pine sawfly. Spraying during the dormant season also lessens the impact on beneficial insects that are present during the spring and summer. Dogwoods planted too deeply, inadequately watered during the first two years of establishment and drought periods, or physically wounded at the trunk (e.g., mower damage), are more susceptible to pest infestations. These mature larvae will wander about in search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood. Apply according to the label instructions. If it is necessary to control cottony maple scale, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. They will be found where honeydew and/or sooty mold (a fungus that grows on honeydew) are present. Dogwood Sawfly, Macremphytus tarsatus, is another native species which feeds on a variety of ornamental and native dogwood trees and shrubs (Cornus spp.). Early larval stages are covered in a white powdery substance, which is thought to mimic bird droppings. Central Maryland
Also, when larvae are one-half full grown or larger they will do little more feeding. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. 4.5 out of 5 stars 226. The adult (1/5 inch long) is a black and yellow, 4-winged non-stinging wasp (sawfly) that is rarely noticed. Dogwood Sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus) The dogwood sawfly is an occasional pest of dogwood. The sawfly has been in existence since the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era. There are three species of Macrempytus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) sawflies in the eastern United States. Get some gloves and go over your rose petal leaves. You will most likely find them underneath the leaves. Crawlers are present in May. 50 £9.49 £9.49. Management is seldom needed, but if desired, wear gloves and manually remove and discard the larvae. Just trying to understand them. REC, Lower Eastern Shore
On the other hand, those from the Pergidae family are pests in oak, eucalyptus, and hickory. The eggs hatch into the caterpillar-like larvae that feed on the leaves. Just a few sawfly larvae on a large or mature plant may do little damage and can be tolerated. White Caterpillar Hello bug people, I’ve had a great time looking at your site and your link to Bug Guide, but I didn’t find a match for these guys that have devoured my red twig dogwood seemingly overnight! To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. Ames, IA 50011-2031
Mature larvae overwinter in cells in the outer wood and pupate in the spring. I'm happy to help. The dogwood sawfly and sawflies in general can cause considerable defoliation because often they feed in groups. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners, By Laura Jesse, ISU Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic, Like us at Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic, Like us at Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. C. stolonifera, Swida sericea, red osier or red-osier dogwood, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east. Different species of sawflies feed on different plants. After the second molt, the larvae become covered with a white powdery material. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. Add Comment. Speaking of wormy-like pests, we discovered an infestation of sawfly larvas—those fuzzy white crawlies that look like caterpillars—on our red twig dogwood bush. But it's the worm-like larva that causes damage to plants. They may roll up the leaves or spin webs. Repeat applications might be needed as the product needs to come in contact with the sawflies. 2. It most frequently attacks trees that are stressed or injured. The leaves are nearly gone, as you can see in this not too great photo, but you get the picture. Photo: Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org. They move onto the bark to overwinter. Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. Dogwood sawfly larvae may “skeletonize” the leaves of many types of dogwoods, leaving just the leaf veins! These immature scales turn yellow and feed on the leaves during the summer. Sawfly larvae are easily dispatched using repeated applications of a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap. The dogwood clubgall midge is responsible for spindle-shaped swellings near the tips of dogwood twigs. Most sawflies feed in groups, and it is possible to spot treat them instead of treating the entire plant. The adult beetle is 1/2 inch long, oval, flattened, greenish bronze above and brassy below. The larvae (young insects) resemble caterpillars and feed on the foliage of several species of dogwood and are most commonly seen on shrub dogwoods [e.g., silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), redosier dogwood (C. sericea)]. •When the eggs hatch in mid-summer, the first stage larvae are tiny, yellow, and translucent. A few species leave galls on the foliage. It is essential that young trees receive adequate water during establishment. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Prune out heavily infested branches. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org. Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) Adult. kurstaki (Btk) is a co… Dogwood plants need acidic well-drained soil in full to partial shade. Sawfly larvae grow up to be sawflies—they are small flying insects that lives such short lives that you may never see the adults—or mistake them for wasps if you do! As the yellow-orange maggots grow, the tissue swells around them forming the characteristic gall. Plant trees at the proper depth and in the best conditions possible. This should be done after wilting occurs and before adult emergence in the spring. Unfortunately we often notice the damage after the larvae are done feeding, so it is important to look for the larva before treating. As they grow and molt, they become covered with a white waxy coating. So how do you kill sawfly larvae naturally, without pesticides? On dogwood, it can be a serious problem on young trees that are planted too deeply and on stressed, older trees. Leaving the larvae for the birds could be a good solution and beneficial. £7.50 £ 7. All three species feed on the foliage of dogwood. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs.Flagging of a branch caused by Dogwood Twig Borer infestation. Larvae are called flatheaded borers because of the enlarged, flattened area behind the small, black head. It's co… Adding Pyrethrin creates the organic equivalent of a one-two knockdown punch. These products have minimal impact on natural enemies. Dogwood sawfly, Macremphytus tarsatus, has been found on shrubby dogwood species on campus.While this pest looks like a caterpillar, it is actually the larval stage of a wasp-like … Be sure the specific host is listed on the insecticide … kurstaki (Btk) is a common low impact insecticide used against moth and butterfly caterpillars. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. The wing covers have wavy, light-colored indentations. Or look for pupal cases on or near the plant and destroy them. Older damage browns and can sometimes look like a disease lesion. Typically, the larvae cluster together and are capable of eating an enormous amount of plant matter in a very short time. Female calico scale insects are very conspicuous in May. The larvae may be found boring into the base of these trees. Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Horticulture and Home Pest News, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Young larvae (1/2 inch long) are greenish-black, elongated, slim and slug-like, with very little evidence of legs. There is only one generation each year, with the larva overwintering inside the twig. After their final molt, they lose the powdery covering and change color. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org, The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. Currently, there are roughly eight thousand species of sawflies on Earth. The oldest superfamily, the Xyeloidea, has existed into the present. Insecticidal soap and horticultural oil are effective when managing small numbers of young sawfly larvae. That’s over 250 million years ago! Photo: John A. Davidson, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org. However, further defoliation can be halted by knocking the larvae onto the ground to stomp them or into a bucket of soapy water to drown them. The dogwood borer is the major pest of dogwood. To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. As they grow, they will eat all of the leaf except the midrib. Copyright © 2020ISU Extension and Outreach
Treat sawfly larvae when they are young and half their full-grown size or less when pesticides are more effective. Failure to provide these conditions will encourage disease and pest problems. Pyrethrin is a nerve agent that will absorb into the insect and kill by paralysis. The larvae (young insects) resemble caterpillars and feed on the foliage of several species of dogwood and are most commonly seen on shrub dogwoods [e.g., silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), redosier dogwood (C. sericea)]. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. REC, Western Maryland
As the larva tunnels, the twig may break off or wilt behind it. Pests That Cause Leaf Drop. The caterpillar overwinters in its burrow under the bark and pupates in the spring. The adults do not eat and cannot sting. The larvae bore into the tree and feed in the phloem (tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves) and outer sapwood. The only natural parasite of the dogwood sawfly is the wasp, which is an insect most gardeners do not want to voluntarily add to the garden. During the dormant season (when leaves have fallen from deciduous trees) apply a horticultural oil (4% dormant rate) to control overwintering immature scales. The adult midge is a small, delicate, brown fly. Sawflies can be controlled through the use of insecticides, natural predators and parasites, or mechanical methods. By mid-June, they die, shrivel, and turn brown. They do not settle on the leaves but stay to feed on the twigs and branches. Calico Scale (Eulecanium cerasorum), females. Closer view of the eggs inserted into the leaf tissue. The adult is a day-flying clearwing moth. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. Their larvae can do a lot of damage to trees and shrubs, though. Sawfly larvae look like caterpillars and feed on leaves like caterpillars, but sawflies are wasps. Smoosh Them. Crawlers hatch in June and settle on leaves to feed. Larger trees with ongoing infestations often develop rough, knotty areas on the trunk and large branches, and may lack vigor. A summer rate (2%) spray of horticultural oil may be used in summer, if necessary. When the dogwood borer moth emerges, the brown pupal skin is frequently left behind in the exit hole, indicating the presence of this pest. Simply rub your fingers over each leaf, and smoosh any you come across. A light infestation will cause little harm, but a heavy infestation can stunt a tree. Notice those twigs branching off the main stem? While I do feel certain what I have on the roses are sawfly larvae, I'm wondering if it's possible for the larvae to be active at the same time the fly stage are active. Sawfly legs are harder to see and don’t protrude to the degree that caterpillar or moth larvae do; Sawfly larvae are hairless (or have very few hairs) Caterpillar larvae are hairy; Sawfly larvae are about 1” at adult size; Caterpillars can be much lengthier; Moth larvae have hairy, spiny, or smooth bodies, but are often longer than sawflies Low impact pesticides. The female lays eggs on the undersides of the leaves. Small dogwood sawfly larvae hatched from nearby eggs. They are large (1/4 inch long), black and white-spotted and swollen. Outbreaks of sawfly larvae can defoliate trees and may cause dieback, stunting or death. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. A dogwood sawfly: These may be found boring into landscape timbers and other wooden objects in ground contact. Dogwood Sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus) larvae. I've done a lot of research but I'm no entomologist. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. This helps reduce the amount of pesticide used. Examine the undersides of leaves for the flat, yellow, immature scales along the leaf veins. Dogwood sawfly Macremphytus tarsatus Order Hymenoptera, Family Tenthredinidae; common sawflies Native pest Host plants: Dogwood, particularly gray and redosier Description: Adult sawflies are wasplike. Some larvae look like caterpillars with three pairs of large legs and seven pairs of smaller false legs. There is one generation each year. Refer to our pages on c. We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Adults appear in summer and feed on the foliage of host trees. As larva, the Dogwood sawfly is true to its name by feeding exclusively on dogwood trees (genus Cornus).They will eat leaves down to the veins, a term called “skeletonizing”. Sawflies first appeared 250 million years ago in the Triassic. It is about 3/8 inch long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the abdomen, and resembles a wasp. Dogwood sawfly Macremphytus tarsatus Order Hymenoptera, Family Tenthredinidae •Adult sawflies emerge in late spring and lay their eggs on the undersides of leaves. Adult sawflies, which resemble tiny wasps, emerge during late spring and early summer. Dogwood Sawfly larvae Macremphytus tarsatus Species Macremphytus tarsatus - Dogwood Sawfly - BugGuide.Net. Upon hatching, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf. Small trees or individual branches can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons. Refer to our pages on common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and tree care. Insecticides labeled for sawfly control on the plant in question will also work if treatment is applied when larva are young. There is one generation each year. The galled twigs and terminals die prematurely and flowering is reduced. Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) and hybrids of kousa and native dogwood (C. florida) are resistant to anthracnose and decline and should be used to replace dying trees. But each dogwood leaf can have dozens of sawfly caterpillars grasping onto the undersides of leaves … every leaf. Conifer sawflies, for instance, are found in coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce. It has sometimes been considered a synonym of the Asian species Cornus alba. Similarly the dogwood sawfly larvae that eat entire leaves from gray and red osier dogwood plants in late summer will be found only on dogwood shrubs. When the sawflies are larger, one of the contact or systemic insecticides registered for control … Dogwood sawfly damage is well underway for this season. The larvae, which feed on the leaves through the summer, are black, with yellow bars across the back and solid yellow underneath but often appear white because of a powdery white waxy coating that covers them except during the last … Sawfly larvae are easily knocked off plants, and can be dropped into soapy water to finish them off. Some of the most common pest causes of a dogwood tree dropping leaves are: Borer insects; Scale; Dogwood sawfly; Insect pests are usually the easiest to diagnose. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. This article was originally published on August 12, 2009. Calico scale and cottony maple scale are both soft scales and produce honeydew (a clear, sticky substance). These insects attach themselves to branches or leaves where they suck juices from the tree. Adult female scales are 3/16 inch long, black, flat, and oval. Eggs hatch at this time and tiny white crawlers settle on leaf veins. 10 Comments drP 7 years ago. Dogwood sawfly on the underside of the leaf. Some of the more common sawflies that feed on trees and shrubs in Iowa are listed below. As you can see, they consumed about 50% of the leaves before we spied them. The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. It will feed just under the bark in the cambium layer. Adults emerge from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most of the summer. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis). If problems occur year after year, scout early for eggs or larva. There is one generation each year and immatures overwinter on the twigs. This is one of the easiest methods to get rid of them (though it is kinda gross). Dogwood sawfly eggs lined up along veins. Unfortunately we often notice the damage after the larvae are done feeding, so it is important to look for the larva before treating. And I agree--I love how much I can learn from everyone here. The female moth lays her eggs on the bark of the tree and is particularly attracted to injured bark, scars, and other rough areas on the trunk. Sawflies are one of the few insects in the wasp family that feed on plants. The flatheaded appletree borer attacks a wide variety of shade and fruit trees. A dormant oil spray may be applied in late winter. Upon hatching, the young caterpillar finds a suitable place to enter the tree such as a wound, scar, woody gall, or branch crotch. If larvae are fully grown, the damage is done and treatment is not effective. Identifying Sawfly’s Damage Plants Affected. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs. The newly hatched larvae, or maggots, work their way into the developing twig. They are about the size of a pinhead and light-colored. Small, wet areas on the bark, dead branches, adventitious growth (water sprouts on trunk and large branches), or sloughing and cracking of bark can all be symptoms of dogwood borer attack. REC, Dogwood Insect Pests: Identification and Management, Flowering Dogwood Trees: Selection, Care, and Management of Disease Problems, Why Are Leyland Cypress Trees Turning Brown, Azaleas and Rhododendrons: Common Diseases and Abiotic Problems, Boxwood: Preventing and Managing Common Pests and Diseases, Diagnosing Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons, Ornamental Fruit Trees: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Managing Problems. Dogwood sawfly eggs lined up along veins. They are found on twigs and branches. Azadirachtin and spinosad are effective for one or two weeks so sawflies that feed on treated foliage are still affected. While sawflies are food for many animals in the wild, in cultivated areas they can be hard to manage. Dogwood sawfly larvae in different larval instars. Sawfly eggs hatch into larvae which go through eight stages of growth. The adult resembles a fly or a wasp without a constricted waist. After the second molt, larvae become covered in a white powdery sub-stance. photo credit: W. Costello When the sawfly is detected early, insecticidal soap or horticultural oil is an effective control. I have a lot of the fly stage out in my yard--at least I think they are the sawfly fly stage. For example, a few years ago, local insects were little more than things that got in my way while I was taking pictures of plants. If it is necessary to control high populations, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. FREE Delivery on your first order shipped by Amazon. Basically they eat the green part of the leaf leaving a fine layer of clear leaf tissue. Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. Oysershell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). The adults may be seen running over the bark of trees and fly when disturbed. Prune out and destroy the galls in summer before the maggots drop to the ground to pupate in the fall. Those that belong to the Argidae family are common in birch, oak, elm, and rose bushes. Heavy infestations of this scale may cause yellowing, wilting and eventually branch dieback. Sawfly damage is caused by the larvae that feed on the plants in several different ways, depending on the species. By Mary Kay Malinoski, Principal Agent, University of Maryland Extension. Get it Monday, Sep 14. The dogwood sawfly, Macremphytus sp., is an interesting sawfly because the second larval instar (stage in the larval development between molts) is covered in a white waxy covering and the last larval instar is yellow and black. This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. 1. Keep in mind, this soap is … They are creamy colored and excavate large, irregular tunnels in the phloem on the main trunk and larger branches which die back first. Sign in to suggest organism ID. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. The mature larvae are yellowish with a shiny black head and black spots. Maintaining good tree health is the best way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer. Insecticidal soaps, horticultural oil, and pyrethrin are labeled for sawfly control. The good news is they cannot sting. Sawfly management usually involves the use of chemical sprays. Sawfly Larvae Infesting our Dogwood Dipel Bt to the Rescue… Again! Some leave holes or notches in the leaves, while others skeletonize the leaves by completely devouring the tissue between the veins. And, by the time you realize you have a sawfly infestation, it’s too late. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. They change color pattern several times during their development. Dogwood Clubgall Midge. Insecticidal Soap (Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids) & Pyrethrin- The soap will penetrate the insect's shell and kill it by dehydration. Sawflies feeding mid- to late summer also do less harm to a plant. The information contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed. They lay eggs under bark plates or in bark crevices on the main trunk or larger branches. When fully mature, pear sawfly larvae resemble green-orange caterpillars. Be sure to thoroughly cover all of the branches. This is an armored scale and, unlike the cottony maple and calico scales, it does not produce honeydew. Leaf and flower blight Irregular, brown, wrinkled patches form on flower bracts and leaves in the spring. Photo: David Laughlin, Horticultural Student, Bugwood.org. The larvae may appear individually, but often form clusters of dozens of chewing defoliators. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. During this time, ¼ inch long white ovisacs may be found on branches and twigs. The full-grown caterpillar is white with a pale brown head, and about 5/8 inch long. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. Amazon's Choice for "sawfly spray" Provanto 86600245 Ultimate Bug Killer, Insecticide Protects For up to Four Weeks, 30ML, Concentrate. In large plantings, chemical controls may be required. There is one generation each year. There may be one or two generations a year. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. Infected leaves exhibit marginal leaf scorch, dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation. The yellowish larva that hatches from the egg begins tunneling in the pith, boring down the center of the twig, occasionally making a series of holes to the surface through which it expels sawdust. The cottony maple scale is easiest to find in May and June. Dealing with a Sawfly Problem. Each was once surrounded by a leaf. Edited and revised by Christa K. Carignan, Coordinator, University of Maryland Extension, 12/ 2019. There may be one or two generations a year. Large trees are seriously injured from dieback of branches and loss of large patches of bark over mined areas on the trunk. Bacillus thuringiensisvar. There are several scale insects, such as calico scale, cottony maple scale, and oystershell scale, that can become pests on dogwood. Find out more from Hedgerow Rose. Small trees are often killed. If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from the author is required. Dogwood sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus), Newark DE, September 2017.Second picture is from a previous post. Turn brown ) spray of horticultural oil are effective for one or weeks... Tenthredinidae ) sawflies in the phloem on the twigs, has existed the. Ground contact a serious problem on young trees receive adequate water during establishment dogwood diseases dogwood sawfly treatment abiotic,. ( Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids ) & Pyrethrin- the soap will the... Mouthparts that leave holes or notches in the spring Extension, 12/ 2019 or decaying wood to! And larger branches which die back first well-drained soil in full to partial shade to on! 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Only one generation each year, scout early for eggs or larva can have dozens of sawfly larvas—those white., typically on the species of large legs and seven pairs of patches... Find them underneath the leaves in the spring the picture unfortunately we often notice the damage is underway... Head and black spots in groups, and dieback times during their development holes in the leaves author is.. The flatheaded appletree borer is possible to spot treat them instead of treating the entire plant too photo... Is an occasional pest of dogwood twigs fine, white, cottony masses that contain eggs and beneficial deposits in... Is 1/2 inch long white ovisacs may be required the insect 's shell and kill by paralysis the easiest to... You get the picture called flatheaded borers because of the dogwood sawfly treatment maggots, work their way the!, stunting or death are large ( 1/4 inch long ) are present during dormant! Around them forming the characteristic gall conditions possible ) that is rarely noticed “ caterpillar appearance..., delicate, brown fly disease lesion long, oval, flattened area behind the head late. Kill sawfly larvae on a young plant, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf the! Fuzzy white crawlies that look like a disease lesion caterpillar ” appearance, these insects attach themselves to or! In a very characteristic feeding damage called windowpaning “ skeletonize ” the leaves female deposits eggs healthy. Leaving a fine layer of clear leaf tissue larva are young caterpillars—on our twig... To provide these conditions will encourage disease and pest problems removed by hand produce honeydew ( a clear sticky. After year, scout early for eggs or larva not sting the wild in... ) sawflies in the spring oval, flattened, greenish bronze above and brassy below infested twigs the... Yard -- at least I think they are creamy colored and excavate large, Irregular tunnels in the best possible., Irregular tunnels in the phloem ( tissues that move plant foods produced leaves! Timbers and other wooden objects in ground contact brown head, and rose bushes the to! September 2017.Second picture is from a previous post outer wood and pupate in the leaves or spin.. Carignan, Coordinator, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org go over your rose petal leaves tarsatus - dogwood:.