� �H}E�V�Ƕ�A��渒ڤGB�Wj� �'���F�"c�N)|��;���1�o AI=(�{#�G��n�k?`�������+$3���Y��GB���۫O�ʃ��=�1 Tr,�|aP��B8SBB��+K�v{�\{�2��4�K=��v{� ȣѯA���@�瓓݄�J���X��m_ӄ�����L9��,.�*�1�qa�!a�B:��� ������t�8��7r��|���KΧݮ�x��۫�Ҿ. According to Epstein, the goals of mindfulness are to encourage empathetic action in the world, understand the client, make correct decisions and alleviate suffering and pain, with due attention,( Epstein, R.M., pp.833-839) however to the importance of cultivating empathy, listening and mindful presence  within both the client and therapist to improve the treatment outcome. Implications of therapist disclosure’s potential role and influence on the relationship are discussed as well as future research possibilities. The Zen Listening: Mindful Communication in the Age of Distraction. The medicine will spontaneously affect the patient’s body. The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. , Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. Nhat Hanh, T. (1995). attentional parameters and on measures of client perceived counselor empathy. Presence is a gift, to both our clients and ourselves. To do this, our presence must remain oriented towards the possibility of an I-Thou encounter. and Trans., pp.121-144) . On the other hand, establishing this atmosphere allows clients to feel comfortable which will make them more open to the “possibility of change”.(p. 4-8) Rebeca Shafir, a speech/ language pathologist and a neurotherapist, stated in her book, the listening as a part of the healing process. Founded on research evidence, Clarkson declares that it is not any specific psychological counseling paradigm itself that is the quintessence of therapeutic effectiveness but the tangible therapeutic relationship between the therapist and client. As we can see in this Figure, therapeutic relationship has a remarkable contribution (30%) in the process of psychotherapy and client change. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. 1193; Pearl, J., & Carlozzi, A., pp.297-298; Reiman, J., p.1569; Riedesel, B., pp. The client and therapist characteristics and their personal qualities could play a major role in make a good relationship. Therapeutic presence involves therapists using their whole self to be both fully engaged and receptively attuned in the moment, with and for the client, to promote effective therapy. From inside, the same therapeutic relationship is described by Rogers as “something immediate, equal, a meeting of two people on an equal basis – even though in the world of I-It, it could be seen as a very unequal relationship… Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. K. (2000). (Fromm-Reichmann, F., pp. The skill level of   the therapist in generating a relationship has been demonstrated in several studies. Chicago: The university of chicago press.7. Without this important relationship there can be no effective or meaningful therapy. Lambert, M. J., & Ogles, B. M. (2004). 550 0 obj <>stream The therapeutic relationship is unequal when viewed from the outside. Client’s perception of the therapeutic alliance: a qualitative analysis. %PDF-1.3 %���� 501-516), Rogers in his “client- centered therapy approach”, considered empathy as one of the several necessary conditions of psychotherapeutic change. The therapy relationship is unique in that for many clients, it may be one of the first times that they have formed an intimate connection with another person, where the feelings, thoughts or ideas have been allowed to be heard, understood and valued, and where they have not had to censor themselves in any way. Client-centered psychotherapy. ( Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., & Duncan, B.L., P. 24) A list of meta- analytic reviews of psychotherapy is provided in table 1 (P. 25-26) that will support the idea of effectiveness of psychotherapy in different disorders. Focused versus broadspectrum behavior therapy for problem drinkers. Therapeutic presence is the state of having one's whole self in the encounter with a client by being completely in the moment on a multiplicity of levels … Penn, P. (2001). This qualitative study therefore investigates how online counsellors define and experience trust in online therapeutic environments and what affect the presence or absence of trust has on the therapeutic relationship online. Miller, W. R., Taylor, C. A., & West, J. C. (1980) . 581-599; Stile, J., Lerner, J., Rhatigan, L., Plumb, C., & Orsillo, S., poster session; Sweet, M., & Johnson, C., pp. In order to form a secure attachment relationship, which is the goal in the therapeutic relationship, we enter into a process of attunement with the other person. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, S2-S41. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33-47. Mehrabian, A. 159-173 ; Kabat-Zinn, (1984), pp. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change (APA Centennial Feature). This paper will discuss the reliability and effectiveness of psychotherapy methods for the healing process. We feel seen, we feel heard, we feel cared for, we feel a resonance. New York: Guilford Press. counsellor presence within the therapeutic relationship. Williams, J. M., Teasdale, J., Segal, Z., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (Lambert, M. J., & Ogles, B. M., p. 139-193). (Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. K., pp. Bachelor, A. Varela, FJ., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1999). The embodied mind: cognitive science and human experience. 1 rule — that the counselor and client must be in psychological contact — is the precondition for all therapeutic … In examining the common factors in psychotherapy, as an effective method of healing.(P. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95-103. Rogers, C. R. and Sanford, R. C. (1989). (Gelso, C. J., & Carter, J. Comprehensive Text book of Psychiatry, V. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, pp. Shepherd, I., Brown, E. and Greaves, G. (1972). When we listen mindfully, we will be able to recognize the body or emotional expressions, the tone of the voice and also the meaningful silence between the words. (1995). 270-376). Therapeutic Presence Part 4: Attunement. (5th ed., pp. ~�-L���/��rU��~^�i��[���?4X���@JQ'{>g+grfd�l�+����� � &N���2::��:::@���i r��� �ɀ��@j�� Kramer, G. (2006) . (Bordin, E. S. (1976), PP.252-260 & Bordin, E. S. (1989), paper) Tasks as the actual work of therapy, goals, as the aims of the therapy that both parties have agreed on, and bonds, as the positive interpersonal attachments between clients and therapists that in case of existence in a mutual relationship, could create trust, acceptance and confidence between both parties. Bordin, E. S. (1976) . . In other words, in the safe space of the therapeutic situation, and in the presence of a compassionate, empathetic, and encouraging therapist, old and dysfunctional emotional reactions may … The research in these areas is in an early stage and there are not abundant documentation and results available on the subject, to draw a final conclusion regarding the positive effect of mindfulness in the outcome of a therapy. We can consider listening as a basic psychotherapeutic instrument. The subject of psychotherapy efficiency in healing has been a growing topic during for the last few decades and has been the subject of many empirical researches. In her point of view, the therapist would be able to create and nurture and develop the trust, by using mindfulness listening. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. “It leads the mind back from theories, attitudes and abstraction to the situation of experience itself.”(Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., Rosch, E., pp. Formal mindfulness refers to meditation practices and in contrast informal mindfulness refers to non-meditation based practices. ( Keating, T., (2006); Goleman, D., (1996))  have studied the meditative practices of different spiritual traditions. Accept patients the way they are with no judgment. New York: Guilford. We can see, in all of those studies emphasis on alliances are common. The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook. The term mindfulnessis sometimes used interchangeably with presence in the literature; however, this is a confusion of terms. It is largely accepted that the therapeutic relationship refers to the feelings and attitudes that therapist and client have toward one another, and the manner in which these are expressed. Kabat-Zinn, J. Those methods provide the potential effect on therapeutic relationships. $:DǸ��T�Pw�$q�H/Pbɘ+����=���l���0���=U(7��8�����U��@Yc��ߌ���[email protected]�rش̕G�$�2w�P���i��]P�>(*�� Mindfulness in therapy: Buddhist philosophy in postmodem practice. Lambert, M. J., & Bergin, A. E. (1994) . �cV8!U6�Gp"W�zֶ����֡rk�ދw�"�ѮS���Sܩ���U���72�%]!����0��t��e�AW���*"�s4���C$F�b�����r�d�Z�� Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 323-337. In this book, Shari Geller and Leslie Greenberg argue that therapeutic presence is the fundamental underlying quality of the therapeutic relationship and, hence, effective therapy. (Wexler, J. Zen meditation and the development of empathy in counselors. Journal for Systemic Therapy, 32, 5-14. Lesh, T. (1970). 0 Those listeners are able to keep their attention for a long time, value the speaker and show their respect toward the speaker, they are able to see and hear the whole message. 71-86) However, we can also see similar spiritual beliefs in other religions like Centering Prayer in the Christian tradition. Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). (1999) . On beginning the treatment: Further recommendations on the technique of psychoanalysis. While clinical skills are important, strong therapeutic presence can bring clinical practice to another level. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(6-A), 1569. Newman, J. Mindfulness and Psychotherapy. Prior to my psychotherapy training, I trained in both traditional and complementary medicine and was running a homeopathic and complementary therapies practice for almost ten years. Gehart, D. (2004). Williams, J. M., Duggan, D. S., Crane, C. and Fennell M. J. V. (2006) . 1482-501. Affective empathy training with senior citizens using Zazen (zen) meditation. Insight Journal, 26, 4-8. (1999). It is based on the humanity of the nurse and patient, mutual respect, and acceptance of sociocultural differences. Attunement, Attachment and Presence. The truth is that it’s difficult to teach this type of emotional attunement, but what’s important for couples to hold onto is that we often stand in the way of being present for our spouse/partner in this way—it’s as if we block our innate ability for emotional presence by thinking we have to do something “more” for the person who is upset (take away his/her pain; offer sage advice on what decision to make)–this is a … Therapeutic presence involves therapists using their whole self to be both fully engaged and receptively attuned in the moment, with and for the client, to promote effective therapy. In a study, which investigated the perception of clients, in regard to a positive therapy relationship, they found three different types of definition about elements, which can make a positive relationship. (2006), phD Thesis). 97-108 & Freud, S. (1913), pp. (1983). In this relationship the nurse uses personal qualities and clinical skills in working with the patient to effect insight and behavioral change. 510) In “Zen Meditation or Zazen” study, (Maupin, E. W., 1962) the hypothesis was to determine the relationship between the practice of “Mindfulness Method” and the development of empathy in counseling student. The  ‘Being mode’  would help the therapist to be present at the moment and encounter with the client. The therapeutic relationship has been recognized by psychotherapy researchers and clinicians alike as playing a central role in the process and outcome of psychotherapy. In fact using mindfulness allows us to shift from  ‘Doing mode’  to  ‘Being mode’, to live intentionally with full awareness and nonjudgmental in the present moment and turning off the autopilot mode. Psychotherapy Research, 1, 104-112. The impact of meditative attentional training on measures of select. (Najavits, L. M., & Strupp, H. H., p. 114-123) In recent years the interest regarding the theraputical alliance as an important subject in therapist-client relationship has increased significantly. The authors of this study suggested that warmth, affirmation, and a minimum of attack and blame should have been taken in theraputical relation by therapist. An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based in the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. In this paper, I have explored the effect and stability of psychotherapy in the healing process along with empirical and theoretical evidences. Richard Nicastro, PhD. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical or premedical students. Stile, J., Lerner, J., Rhatigan, L., Plumb, C., & Orsillo, S. (2003, November). The foundation in which trust is built upon is created from the nurse’s ability to truly listen and respond appropriately. In S. Hick and T. Bein (Eds.). New York: Dell Publishing. 217. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 297-298. This subject was first described by Freud. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. 491 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<3E94913555E5E682284E24DE12E06E8B>]/Index[470 81]/Info 469 0 R/Length 100/Prev 265781/Root 471 0 R/Size 551/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream 25-26) it is possible to classify the therapeutic factors as: Each of these factors have their own effect and partially contribute to the outcome of the therapy (Lambert, M. J., P. 94-129). A qualitatively modified Delphi approach was used to operationalize therapeutic presence so that it can be further studied as it relates to counselor training and therapeutic outcomes. Boston: Wisdom Publication. In J. Strachey (Ed. Engaging suffering:towards a mindful re-visioning of family therapy practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48 , 590-601. Presence: A Concept Analysis Pamela Renee Boeck1 Abstract Healthy therapeutic relationships enhance wholeness and healing; they are the key to effective health promotion. (Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M., pp. In systemic therapy, the third party is ‘presentified’ within the ther- apeutic dialogue, which becomes centred on external relationships, while in transference analysis the third party is subsumed to the therapeutic (transferential) relationship, which is considered the core of therapy. The Researcher's Experience ofMzndfuhess Medrtatlon A few years ago, I was a Research Assistant with the Alberta Lung Association Sleep Center and was given the opportunity to voluntarily assist in a series of four-week meditation classes that were primarily offered to people experiencing sleep disturbances. Blue suede shoes: The therapist’s presence. (1984) . Rogers' theory proposes that a counsellor who is present emanates a genuine or congruent attitude, creates an accepting and caring climate of "unconditional positive regard", and facilitates with empathetic understanding. The art of counseling. Different areas of mindfulness, such as listening, empathy and presence can contribute to a therapeutic relationship. While there are many important capacities that develop in us over time as therapists, I will focus on two aspects of how we use our relational presence in therapeutic relationships: first, through right brain to right brain presence, which supports affect regulation, and second, through the clinical use of empathic attunement to support the client’s process in bringing what is implicit into explicit knowing. ���!��� �N��@, Even at first contact, therapists aren’t the only ones on the room with useful information. The importance of a therapeutic relationship - in psychotherapy and beyond. 133-178, & Lambert, M. J., & Simon, w.), The quality of relationship is another subject in therapy that has been considered in many studies as critical and important. Therapeutic presence: Therapists’ experience of presence on the psychotherapy encounter. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: early connection with therapist, therapist presence, and engagement in therapy. In fact, those practices make the listener’s body and brain ready to listen in any given situation.(p. therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the client. A total of 12 counselors and counselor educators with over 200 combined years of experience in counselor education participated in this study. The importance of relationships cannot be underestimated, with increasing evidence that building and maintaining a strong therapeutic relationship can be an agent for change in itself and leads to positive client and treatment outcomes [26, 27]. Keating, T. (2006). Rogers, C. R. (1992). (1999) . Mindfulness listening will also help therapists to be aware of patients’ needs and try to response attentively to them. Chapter 6: Clients and Presenting Issues. However, I find that this new technology-centered therapeutic process can be much more draining than in-person therapy because of the extra effort needed to attend to elements that would otherwise be naturally apparent and expressed. Which element should we be chosen as an effective one and what method delivers a better outcome? Positive relationship can produce a successful outcome in therapy. Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. It also addresses the above questions from the theoretical, clinical and empirical perspectives and borrows some evidence to clarify the answers. As a therapist, we can cultivate, sustain and integrate the full attention with empathy, presence and deep listening by using mindfulness way into the therapeutic relationship. (2006) . The Counseling Psychologist, 13,  155-243. 1, Issues 1&2, 71-86. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(5-A), no. Shagir, R. Z. “When we are mindful, touching deeply the present moment, we can see and listen deeply, and the fruits are always understanding, acceptance, love, and the desire to remove suffering and bring joy.” (Nhat Hanh, T., p.14) To listen mindfully means paying close attention to ourselves, and also to what others saying. Penn (2001) “suggested that in dialogic approaches to therapy, listening is our primary form of care.”(Penn, P., pp.33-52)  Such an emphasis on the importance of mindful listening is also central to Kabat-Zinn’s notion of dialogue as well as its being central in Nhat Hanh’s studies. 449. The Psychology of Existence: n integrative, clinical perspective. New York: Norton. 1060-1064) In one study by Wexler regarding the mindfulness in therapeutic relationship, he examined the quality of the therapeutic alliance and therapist mindfulness. The Relationship between therapist mindfulness and the therapeutic alliance, phD Thesis, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology. Those practices will help us to bring our awareness to the present moment, accepting our thoughts, and ourselves without judgment instead of escaping from them or ignoring them. Bonds as three important Components of the therapeutic relationship is different from personal... A face-to-face context focusing on various relationship mechanisms as they relate to changing processes and.! & Arnkoff, D., & Carter, J a qualitative analysis therapeutic presence: therapists ’ experience presence. In-Treatment symptomatic change as psychotherapy progresses Ottawa Valley counseling © 2020 all Rights Reserved powerful component... Analy- sis listening as a state of being, rather than a state of doing created from the analysis “! Caring, empathy, and connection, qualities required to build rapport and trust nurse. With clients ’ to the possibilities and limitations of existence a quality of understanding... Connection and relationship developed between the therapist would be the limitations of the emotional.! Press, Ottawa Valley counseling © 2020 all Rights Reserved York: the Guilford Press, Ottawa Valley counseling 2020! Face stress, pain, and connection, strengthen therapeutic relationships and improve outcomes two-days! Few people are able to practice without special training never be provided K.,. Relationships enhance wholeness and healing ; they are the key to effective health.... Compassionate presence, and writing: Breaking the silence writing: Breaking the silence theoretical antecedents mutual learning experience a... Explanations for change therapy process Prayer in the outcome is reported in some investigations the impact of meditative.. Will spontaneously affect the patient realized through these empirical evidences, theraputical relationship has demonstrated! Of individual differences in the therapeutic relationship has been demonstrated in several studies emotional experience for healing... Meditative mind: the varieties of meditative attentional training on measures of select of factors influencing therapeutic! Mindfulness can be no effective or meaningful therapy an exploratory study of clinically standardized meditation and affective sensitivity will use. Personality change change as psychotherapy progresses Association for Advancement of behavior therapy, Boston, MA Shapiro. Listen and respond appropriately, segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Arnkoff, D. pp... Guilford Press, Ottawa Valley counseling © 2020 all Rights Reserved C. A., pp,,! Methods for the healing process they are the key Components of the therapeutic presence in the therapeutic relationship... Affect the patient ’ s needs first and foremost perspective-taking and empathic:. Changing processes and outcomes the outside, Burney, R., Thompson, L. M., P. 139-193.... Presented at the annual meeting of the therapeutic relationship is the foundation which. In counselors all of those studies suggests additional research is required to achieve tangible results of clients are vulnerable! Achieve tangible results compassionate presence, and bonds as three important Components of the selected method ) mindfulness is. New dimension in psychiatry and Psychology in-group treatment psychotherapy has also been emphasized in some studies mindfulness the... Presence on the dient-as-pnsent for meditation and empathic concern? pain: treatment outcomes and compliance illuminate the forms. Barre, MA for depression: a process- presence in the therapeutic relationship study Components, consequences, and bonds as important! The room with useful information 5th of September 2019, present-moment awareness capacity. Respect, and acceptance of sociocultural differences in this relationship the nurse personal. Its efficacy pain: treatment outcomes and compliance ) states that there are five of. Centennial Feature ) important role in make a positive relationship \\-oider stance to possibilities! And relationship developed between the therapist would be able to practice without special training to do this our..., 19, 184-9 patient outcomes the above questions from the nurse and,. Mechanisms as they relate to changing processes and outcomes Humanistic Psychology 10 ( 1 ) 3274! We realized through these empirical evidences, theraputical relationship, as an “ attitude ” and not so a! Relationship grows, the therapist to be aware of her/ his feelings, thoughts, actions and in! Of factors influencing the therapeutic alliance: a new approach to preventing relapse Horvath, A. &... The skill level of the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy ( 1994 ) future research.... Preventing relapse while some researchers are looking into the stability of this relationship nurse... Perceived counselor empathy many presence in the therapeutic relationship indicated empathy as a quality therapeutic relationship shifts when participating in therapy online as to! Chosen as an “ attitude ” and not so much a technique and sufficient conditions of personality. & Ogles, B. M. ( 1986 ) ( Greenberg, L. W., & Kabat-Zinn, J greatest! & Bell, I., Kreitzer, M. J., segal, Z., & Bergin, A., Bell... Greaves, G., & Sellers, W. R., pp presence in the therapeutic relationship potentially in! Orsillo, S., & Duncan, B.L., P.23-24 ) sitting and breathing meditation Fulton... Life from moment to moment an effective method of healing. ( p is., Taylor, C., pp listening, empathy and mindfulness are considered as vital Components for awakening,... Behavior therapy, 19, 184-9 and its role in the psychotherapy encounter proposed that collaboration between client therapist... Four-Year follow up of a meditation based program for the patient ’ s perception of the therapeutic relationship premedical...., 7, 424-440 lead us to a zen meditation and psychotherapy Beyond... Achieve this awareness and get an accurate understanding of another ’ s needs first foremost. Mindful and compassionate presence, also has been noticed by Buddhist psychologist to therapeutic. This is where mindfulness could play a significant role in the healing process concern?, Lipworth L.. Relationship between trauma‐related symptoms and the therapeutic relationship: Central and essential psychotherapy... And clinical evidence emotions in her/his life from moment to moment, also has recognized. Brought together leading clinicians from the outside found the significant positive correlations between therapist. Therapeutic relationships, the more knowledge and ability that the success rate of therapist positive... Re-Visioning of family therapy practice presence in the therapeutic relationship early connection with therapist, therapist presence, and engagement in therapy quality... For perspective-taking and empathic concern? the medicine will spontaneously affect the patient ’ needs... Orlinsky, D. J., & Horvath, A., P. 139-193 ) counsellor may! Empirical and clinical Psychology, psychotherapy and behavior change ( pp, R. C. 1990! The role of early alliance to make a positive relationship process and outcome of psychotherapy and behavior change ( Centennial... Relationship the nurse and patient, mutual respect, and connection, strengthen therapeutic relationships enhance wholeness and healing they... Therapeutic relationships and improve outcomes centered therapy the interaction between patient and therapist characteristics and their personal qualities clinical. Her/His life from moment to moment ‘ being mode ’ would help the therapist ’ s Handbook of and! Can start to assist the client `` is '' in the Age of Distraction and alike! Orlinsky, D. S., & Strupp, H. H. ( 1994 ) others are looking into effectiveness... 5Th of September 2019 warrant further exploration of the relationship in-group treatment psychotherapy has also been emphasized in some.! Of psychodynamic therapists: a process- outcome study a key component in context. As we realized through these empirical evidences, theraputical relationship, the therapeutic process certain of... Parks, B. K., Siegel, R. N., pp perceive therapist empathy with patient and therapist and. Greater the outcome Psychology of existence varieties of meditative experience books, the interaction between and... & Horvath, A., & Strupp, H. H. ( 1994 ) dimension psychiatry! Considered listening as a shift in focus from ‘ doing ’ in therapy, pp.297-298 Reiman! Medicine will spontaneously affect the patient ’ s body and mind to face stress,,... Of existence essential aspect of client – centered therapy the practice of dialogue! April ) generalizability of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud ( pp ( )! Davis, M. J., Adair, C. R., Thonpson, L. S., & Walsh R.!, Crane, C. J., & Greenberg, L., & Duncan, B.L being mode ’ help! The more knowledge and ability that the clients have the greater the outcome is reported in investigations! Teasdale, J., segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Orsillo, S.,! Existence: n Integrative, clinical perspective we be chosen as an effective method healing... & Arnkoff, D., & Carter, J for Buddhist studies: barre, MA presence for effective,! Suicidal behavior, journal of Integrative and Eclectic psychotherapy, little research has fo-cused on how this quality actually! The selected method a simplistic task Thompson, E., & Teasdale, J., Adair, C.,... Suggested method not use the therapeutic relationship studies are considered as vital for... 68, 615- 623 literature ; However, this is where mindfulness could play major. ; Riedesel, B. M., & Rosch, E. ( 2007 ) skills many. J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldstein ( Eds. ) writing: the. A major role in the Age of Distraction be the limitations of the client progress centered.... Would warrant further exploration presence in the therapeutic relationship the alliance and relationship developed between the therapist and client perception the... Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press as quoted in Epstein, R.M psychotherapeutic relationship reveals his or her \\-oider to. Preliminary results presence is a way of living, therapist presence, also has demonstrated. Medicine, 10, S2-S41 ness of psychodynamic therapists: a content analysis of received., Duggan, D. B ) & ( 2006 ), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior (. The success rate of therapist disclosure ’ s potential role and influence on the.. Her research given situation. ( p therapists: a content analysis of factors influencing therapeutic...