[68] One such strain that has emerged is the Taiwanese Cavendish, also known as the Formosana.[73]. Nonetheless, it packed with numerous health benefiting phytonutrients lke dietary fiber, anti-oxidants, minerals, and vitamins. [149], "Banana" is also a slur aimed at some asian people, that are said to be "yellow on the outside, white on the inside". In all seriousness, there are a few cases where types of plants, animals and other things in nature cross both boundaries so that their true origin or place in a category is confusing. The fruitful things that grow on all these plants are always fruit. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace Cavendish bananas, so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are attempting to create a disease-resistant, mass-market banana. From Island Southeast Asia, they became part of the staple crops of Austronesian peoples and were spread during their voyages and ancient maritime trading routes into Oceania, East Africa, South Asia, and Indochina. The answer to that question is no. What are these white spots on my larch tree? Banana plants are actually herbaceous plants, and their stems do not contain any wood tissue. [41][42] Small farmers in Colombia grow a much wider range of cultivars than large commercial plantations. Instead of fresh eating, these bananas can be used for cooking, as seen in Jamaican cuisine. In addition, bananas and their crop wild relatives are conserved in situ (in wild natural habitats where they evolved and continue to do so). [38] Southeast Asian languages do not make the distinction between "bananas" and "plantains" that is made in English (and Spanish). For example, the outermost fibers of the shoots are the coarsest, and are suitable for tablecloths, while the softest innermost fibers are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. [64], Panama disease is caused by a fusarium soil fungus (Race 1), which enters the plants through the roots and travels with water into the trunk and leaves, producing gels and gums that cut off the flow of water and nutrients, causing the plant to wilt, and exposing the rest of the plant to lethal amounts of sunlight. [9] Plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy, and are often mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is actually a "false stem" or pseudostem. A banana is the common name for a type of fruit and also the name for the herbaceous plants that grow it. Today, banana consumption increases significantly in Islamic countries during Ramadan, the month of daylight fasting. The fruitful things that grow on these plants are always fruit. Let’s just call a banana a “Frerb” or a “Huit”! [33] Cheesman recommended the abolition of Linnaeus's species in favor of reclassifying bananas according to three morphologically distinct groups of cultivars – those primarily exhibiting the botanical characteristics of Musa balbisiana, those primarily exhibiting the botanical characteristics of Musa acuminata, and those with characteristics of both. Banana passion fruit Originating in the Andes, this odd fruit is essentially a passion fruit in a banana's body. [127], In India, a banana fiber separator machine has been developed, which takes the agricultural waste of local banana harvests and extracts strands of the fiber. Bananas are also commonly used in cuisine in the South-Indian state of Kerala, where they are steamed (puzhungiyathu), made into curries,[116] fried into chips, (upperi)[117] or fried in batter (pazhampori). Plantains can be boiled, baked, or fried, both when ripe and in their green state. For a healthy treat that children, especially, will love, peel one and push a wooden stick into one end. Green boiled plantains can be mashed and served in dishes like Mofongo, a traditional dish from Puerto Rico or flattened and fried to make a tostondelicious with a dash of salt and … There are starchy cooking bananas which are smaller than those eaten raw. It also usually contains seeds.” (From Introduction to Plant Biology, by Kingsley R. Stern) The ovary of a plant is part of the flower pistil. [94], According to current sources, a deadly form of Panama disease is infecting Cavendish. Therefore, to a botanist, banana is an herb. [19] There is a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with numerous long, thin strings (the phloem bundles), which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion. [4][5] They are grown in 135 countries,[6] primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine, and banana beer and as ornamental plants. Trees can be as huge as redwoods or as small as the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea), which only grows to be about six cm tall (2 in.). Bananas and plantains come from plants in the genus Musa, which is native to Southeast Asia. Cultivars are placed in groups based on the number of chromosomes they have and which species they are derived from. So you could say the banana leaf is a herb. The paper is either hand-made or by industrial process. The scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. Almost all mod… [62] North Americans began consuming bananas on a small scale at very high prices shortly after the Civil War, though it was only in the 1880s that the food became more widespread. [33][34], The accepted scientific names for most groups of cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla for the ancestral species, and Musa × paradisiaca L. for the hybrid M. acuminata × M. After a few days, the fruit begins to ripen and is distributed for final sale. It can also refer to members of the genus Ensete, such as the snow banana (Ensete glaucum) and the economically important false banana (Ensete ventricosum). Despite this, the original names are still recognized by some authorities, leading to confusion. [15] Each pseudostem normally produces a single inflorescence, also known as the "banana heart". The chlorophyll breakdown product is stabilized by a propionate ester group. Annual banana production, measured in tonnes per year. During the medieval ages, bananas from Granada were considered among the best in the Arab world. Apple trees are trees, not fruit. Apples are fruits, not trees. Researchers are examining hundreds of wild varieties for resistance. How our favourite fruit came to be", "Plastid ultrastructure, chlorophyll contents, and colour expression during ripening of Cavendish banana (, "4 ways to use green bananas that won't ripen", "GLOBAL ISSUES FOR BREAKFAST: THE BANANA INDUSTRY AND ITS PROBLEMS FAQ (COHEN MIX)", "Banana production in 2017, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Global leading producers of bananas 2017", "Banana and plantain exports in 2013, Crops and livestock products/Regions/World list/Export quantity (pick lists)", "A Quest for the Gros Michel, the Great Banana of Yesteryear", "The banana is one step closer to disappearing", "Risk assessment of Eastern African Highland Bananas and Plantains against TR4", "Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4", MusaNet Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of, "International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre", "2016. (2003). The ovary would be the bulb. All plants are genetically identical, which prevents evolution of disease resistance. The botanist’s definition of fruit includes most of the things we usually think of as fruit, such as apples, peaches and berries. The botanist’s definition would most definitely include bananas, which are the developed ovaries of the banana plant. [78], Carbon dioxide (which bananas produce) and ethylene absorbents extend fruit life even at high temperatures. In summary, in commerce in Europe and the Americas (although not in small-scale cultivation), it is possible to distinguish between "bananas", which are eaten raw, and "plantains", which are cooked. Known as kaccha kela, this vegetable contributes significantly to several delicious recipes in the world of culinary. Black sigatoka is a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in Fiji in 1963 or 1964. Prior to 1960, almost all commercial banana production centered on "Gros Michel", which was highly susceptible. This may be a possible indication of very early dispersal of bananas by Austronesian traders by sea from as early as 2000 BCE. My brother says its a fruit but I say that it’s a herb because they don’t grow on the tree and also the plant doesn’t have any woody bits but my brother says its a fruit because they have seeds in it, Your email address will not be published. In addition to the expense, there is the question of how long intensive spraying can be environmentally justified. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese colonists started banana plantations in the Atlantic Islands, Brazil, and western Africa. [129], Now I don't think much of the man that throws a banana peelin' on the sidewalk, and I don't think much of the banana peel that throws a man on the sidewalk neither ... my foot hit the bananer peelin' and I went up in the air, and I come down ker-plunk, jist as I was pickin' myself up a little boy come runnin' across the street ... he says, "Oh mister, won't you please do that agin? Examples include the Burmese dish mohinga, and the Filipino dish inubaran. Hippolyte, I, Jenny, C, Gardes, L, et al. Well, as long as it tastes fine it doesn’t really matter. In other regions of the world, particularly India, Southeast Asia and the islands of the Pacific, there are many more kinds of banana and the two-fold distinction is not useful and not made in local languages. Ripe bananas can be held for a few days at home. I can see both arguments as to whether a banana is a herb or a fruit, however, as long as it tastes as good as it does, then that’s fine by me! A study of these cultivars showed that they could be placed into at least three groups based on their characteristics: dessert bananas, non-plantain cooking bananas, and plantains, although there were overlaps between dessert and cooking bananas. [47], The earliest domestication of bananas (Musa spp.) Bananas start out inside the banana heart, whose petals open up one by one to reveal blossoms. Banana-plant leaves also fluoresce in the same way. As a non-seasonal crop, bananas are available fresh year-round. Alternatively, pair a banana with a protein source like peanut butter to refuel your glycogen stores post-workout. Thus the Latundan banana is placed in the AAB Group, showing that it is a triploid derived from both M. acuminata (A) and M. balbisiana (B). Writing in 1458, the Italian traveller and writer Gabriele Capodilista wrote favourably of the extensive farm produce of the estates at Episkopi, near modern-day Limassol, including the region's banana plantations. Raw bananas (not including the peel) are 75% water, 23% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contain negligible fat. Banana plants are herbaceous and therefore classified as herbs; while apple, peach, and cherry trees are woody-stemmed and classified as trees. A strawberry is also an aggregate fruit, but instead of having multiple drupes, it has multiple achenes, the little yellow ovals on the fruit's surface, which each contain a seed. [43], In Southeast Asia – the center of diversity for bananas, both wild and cultivated – the distinction between "bananas" and "plantains" does not work, according to Valmayor et al. Many, if not most, herbs have fruit, including the banana tree. [32] Researchers Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd proposed a genome-based nomenclature system in 1955. It has been theorized that destruction of 60% of coral reefs along the coasts of Costa Rica is partially from sediments from banana plantations. [74] Flavor and texture are also affected by ripening temperature. This is because the radiation exposure from consuming one banana is only 1% of the average daily exposure to radiation, 50 times less than a typical dental x-ray and 400 times less than taking a commercial flight across the United States. [128], Banana fiber is used in the production of banana paper. In other regions, such as Southeast Asia, many more kinds of banana are grown and eaten, so the binary distinction is not useful and is not made in local languages. Diversity is also conserved in farmers' fields where continuous cultivation, adaptation and improvement of cultivars is often carried out by small-scale farmers growing traditional local cultivars.[106]. Wondering if: bananas are both herb and fruit. [116], Banana hearts are used as a vegetable[119] in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, either raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups, curries and fried foods. Is a banana tree an herb? There are two ideas of what qualifies as a fruit. 100 grams of its flesh carries 90 calories. Musa is in the family Musaceae. Banana pancakes are popular among travelers in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Many of these cultivars were given names that were later discovered to be synonyms. [20] In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence; their remnants are tiny black specks in the interior of the fruit. When used so for steaming or grilling, the banana leaves protect the food ingredients from burning and add a subtle sweet flavor. [69], In global commerce in 2009, by far the most important cultivars belonged to the triploid AAA group of Musa acuminata, commonly referred to as Cavendish group bananas. [25][26] The K-40 in a banana emits about 15 becquerels or 0.1 micro-sieverts (units of radioactivity exposure),[27] an amount that does not add to the total body radiation dose when a banana is consumed. For the genus to which banana plants belong, see. These develop into the hands of bananas. [86][87] Other major producers were the Philippines, Colombia, Indonesia, Ecuador, and Brazil. According to the University of Oxford's "Ask the Experts," "Both. [88], Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. The banana is a fruit that comes in a vaiety of colours and sizes, and is from SouthAsia. In addition to being eaten as is, the baby banana can be baked, sauteed, broiled, or even grilled, and it is a wonderful addition to fruit salads. [120][121] The flavor resembles that of artichoke. [77] To obtain maximum shelf life, harvest comes before the fruit is mature. Actually, if you are a botanist, a banana is neither a vegetable nor a fruit. [89], While in no danger of outright extinction, the most common edible banana cultivar Cavendish (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10–20 years. It would not include rhubarb, which is a plant stem and does not come from the ovary. Leaves become short and stunted as the disease progresses, becoming 'bunched' at the apex of the plant. Linnaeus originally placed bananas into two species based only on their uses as food: Musa sapientum for dessert bananas and Musa paradisiaca for plantains. This technology allows storage and transport for 3–4 weeks at 13 Â°C (55 Â°F). They accounted for the majority of banana exports,[68] despite only coming into existence in 1836. It is thought that bananas were grown for food for the first time in Papua New Guinea. Bananas are not herbs. Botanically, the banana we eat is a berry – fruit. Wood is the interior structure of mostly dead cells that strengthens the tree, allowing it to grow tall and survive multiple years. Banana trees grow from an underground root system called a corm, which can last for many years. At lower temperatures, ripening permanently stalls, and the bananas turn gray as cell walls break down. I am the founder and main writer of AskaNaturalist.com. As reported for 2013, total world exports were 20 million tonnes of bananas and 859,000 tonnes of plantains. 1 1. The Windward Islands are notable for the growing, largely of Cavendish bananas, for an international market, generally in Europe but also in North America. [65], Peasant sector banana growers produce for the world market in the Caribbean, however. The Double Mahoi plant can produce two bunches at once. [146] Racist taunts are an ongoing problem in football. But this is still putative, as they may have come from local wild Musa species used for fiber or as ornamentals, not food. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart. Fruits grow from a plant’s flowers, and bananas do all of these things! By the 10th century the banana appears in texts from Palestine and Egypt. Bananas and plantains are important for global food security. East African Highland bananas originated from banana populations introduced to Madagascar probably from the region between Java, Borneo, and New Guinea; while Pacific plantains were introduced to the Pacific Islands from either eastern New Guinea or the Bismarck Archipelago. The primary component of the aroma of fresh bananas is isoamyl acetate (also known as banana oil), which, along with several other compounds such as butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, is a significant contributor to banana flavor. Like almost all bananas, Cavendish lacks genetic diversity, which makes it vulnerable to diseases, threatening both commercial cultivation and small-scale subsistence farming. as "true" plantains, distinct from other cooking bananas. Many bananas are used both raw and cooked. ", "The earliest modern plantations originated in Jamaica and the related Western", "Banana History – The history of bananas as food", "Nana from heaven? [96] The only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance. Both the skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. In many tropical countries, green (unripe) bananas used for cooking represent the main cultivars. [118] Pisang goreng, bananas fried with batter similar to the Filipino maruya or Kerala pazhampori, is a popular dessert in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Both genera are in the banana family, Musaceae. The confusion over the plantains food-type status likely comes from the fact that it is traditionally used more like a vegetable, as a side dish or accompaniment, and it needs to be cooked before consumption. Many wild banana species as well as cultivars exist in extraordinary diversity in India, China, and Southeast Asia. Is the banana in the herb family? Starved for energy, fruit production falls by 50% or more, and the bananas that do grow ripen prematurely, making them unsuitable for export. For a list of the cultivars classified under this system, see "List of banana cultivars". Bananas can be made into fruit preserves. And this got us thinking about other weird fruit facts you probably didn’t know. The fruitful things that grow on all these plants are always fruit. [108][109] Vegetables with higher potassium content than raw dessert bananas (358 mg per 100 g) include raw spinach (558 mg per 100 g), baked potatoes without skin (391 mg per 100 g), cooked soybeans (539 mg per 100 g), grilled portabella mushrooms (437 mg per 100 g), and processed tomato sauces (413–439 mg per 100 g). Since then BBW has been diagnosed in Central and East Africa including the banana growing regions of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, and Uganda. wondering also if when say organic wheat is used in bread using the mother starter rather than the mimic starter known as yeast would ease or eliminate the popular need for non-gluten. What is this Jelly-like Blob Under My Dock? [110], Bananas are a staple starch for many tropical populations. They hybridized with other (possibly independently domesticated) subspecies of Musa acuminata as well as Musa balbisiana in the Philippines, northern New Guinea, and possibly Halmahera. SURELY BANANA IS AN HERB. [8] All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure usually called a "corm". It would also include some things people don’t typically think of as fruit, such as tomatoes, green beans, and avocados. $120,000 – if it's art", "Banana Splits: Spoiled by Its Own Success, the $120,000 Fruit Is Gone", "Legends, myths and folklore of the banana tree in India - its use in traditional culture", "Comparing Black People to Monkeys has a Long, Dark Simian History", "In the Fight Against Racism, No Bananas, No Monkeys, Please!