It however has only a 100 °C liquid range, and it expands upon freezing. Three methods are commonly employed to determine the freeze point of the solution:[14], Although ethylene glycol hydrometers are widely available and mass-marketed for antifreeze testing, they give false readings at high temperatures because specific gravity changes with temperature. Inhibited ethylene glycol antifreeze mixes are available, with additives that buffer the pH and reserve alkalinity of the solution to prevent oxidation of ethylene glycol and formation of these acids. "Coolant Confusion: It's Not Easy Being Green ... or Yellow or Orange or ...", Products: North America: Anti Freeze/Coolants, "Canadian Nationwide Class Action Settlement Agreement", Tentative Settlement of GM DEX-COOL Class Action Suit, "GM wants to dump liability for damaged engines in Dex-Cool cases", Draft—DEX 2007, Part 3: Now It’s All Up To The Judges and Juries, A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly traps baited with synthetic lures – page 2|Florida Entomologist, Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, High efficiency glandless circulating pump, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antifreeze&oldid=997488547, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Disodium fluorescein dye is added to conventional ethylene glycol formulas to visually distinguish leaked amounts from other vehicle fluids, and as a marker of type to distinguish it from incompatible types. It provides better heat transfer parameters than water, and can be mixed with water to provide a variety of heat transfer characteristics. Ethylene glycol is used as antifreeze in cooling and heating systems, in hydraulic brake fluids, as an industrial humectant, as an ingredient of electrolytic condensers, as a solvent in the paint and plastics industries, in the formulations of printers' inks, stamp pad inks, and inks for ballpoint pens, as a softening agent for cellophane, and in the synthesis of safety explosives, plasticizers, synthetic fibers (Terylene, … Ethylene Glycol is a common component of engine coolant, or antifreeze. Nearly all engines use a 1:1 ratio of coolant: water. Viscosity: lower: higher: Propylene glycol increases major head loss in the systems. [16] Honda specifically excludes 2-EHA from their formulas. The ethylene glycol antifreeze used in automotive applications should not be used in the heating and cooling systems of buildings, however, due to the containment of silicates that are mixed into the automotive antifreeze. A small amount of the green fluid can seep into and poison the groundwater supply for a great number of homes. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly traps baited with synthetic lures; Florida Entomologist, June, 2008 by Donald B. Thomas, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Molecule of the Month: Antifreeze Proteins", National Association of Corrosion Engineers, "An on-line cleaning procedure used to remove iron and microbiological fouling from a critical glycol-contaminated closed-loop cooling water system,", "Selecting and maintaining glycol based heat transfer fluids,", "An investigation of the degradation of aqueous ethylene glycol and propylene glycol solutions using ion chromatography,", "An Evaluation of Glycerin (Glycerol) as a Heavy Duty Engine Antifreeze/Coolant Base", "Proposed ASTM Engine Coolant Standards Focus on Glycerin". [22] GM (Motors Liquidation Company) filed for bankruptcy in 2009, which tied up the outstanding claims until a court determines who gets paid. Although EGW has more desirable physical properties than PGW, the latter coolant is used in applications where toxicity might be a concern. On the other hand, if the engine coolant gets too hot, it might boil while inside the engine, causing voids (pockets of steam), leading to localized hot spots and the catastrophic failure of the engine. Special caution must be taken when handling ethylene glycol based antifreeze coolants. Ethylene glycol solutions became available in 1926 and were marketed as “permanent antifreeze” since the higher boiling points provided advantages for summertime use as well as during cold weather. Some of the newer OAT coolants claim to be compatible with all types of OAT and glycol-based coolants; these are typically green or yellow in color. When used in an automotive context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles' radiators, which often contain a range of electrochemically incompatible metals (aluminum, cast iron, copper, brass, solder, et cetera). Proper engine coolant and a pressurized coolant system obviate these shortcomings of water. $7.14. [15] This dye fluoresces bright green when illuminated by blue or UV light from daylight or testing lamps. The end uses for ethylene glycol are numerous (See Table 1). [16], A HOAT coolant can have a life expectancy as high as 10 years / 180,000 miles. The most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol (EGW) or propylene glycol (PGW). This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 19:18. An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. [25], Si-OAT coolants mix silicates with HOAT. Some added phosphates provide protection while the OAT builds up. In warmer or colder areas, weaker or stronger dilutions are used, respectively, but a range of 40%/60% to 60%/40% is frequently specified to ensure corrosion protection, and 70%/30% for maximum freeze prevention down to −84 °F (−64 °C).[3]. The term engine coolant is widely used in the automotive industry, which covers its primary function of convective heat transfer for internal combustion engines. Ethylene glycol is listed as a toxic chemical requiring care in handling and disposal. Water was the original coolant for internal combustion engines. Although both propylene glycol and ethylene glycol have a large number of applications across a variety of industries and uses including cosmetics and preservatives (propylene glycol) and within the manufacture of resins, inks and polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene glycol) both have a common use within antifreeze and coolant mixes. [27] These side-products are highly reactive and produce volatile aromatic amines which are responsible for the unpleasant odor. Glycol comes in two varieties: ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Solutions of organic compounds, especially alcohols, in water are effective. The unpleasant odor in industrial use tolytriazole comes from impurities in the product that are formed from the toluidine isomers (ortho-, meta- and para-toluidine) and meta-diamino toluene which are side-products in the manufacture of tolytriazole. Propylene glycol and ethylene glycol are both used as antifreeze for cars and trucks They are chemically similar in many respects, with propylene glycol considered to be a safer alternative than its ethylene cousin; however, ethylene glycol has better heat transfer properties. [14] Propylene glycol solutions cannot be tested using specific gravity because of ambiguous results (40% and 100% solutions have the same specific gravity). [16], According to internal GM documents,[24] the ultimate culprit appears to be operating vehicles for long periods of time with low coolant levels. It is also imperative to avoid using city tap water in any ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture since many city water supplies are treated with chlorine, which is a known corrosive. Confusion has arisen, because polyethylene glycol (a chemical used in antifreeze and personal care products like skin creams and toothpaste) is used in vaccines and is safe. [25]. Ethylene glycol has superior heat transfer efficiency due to lower viscosity - but more fluid must be circulated to transfer the same amount of energy since Propylene glycol has higher specific heat. [14], Most commercial antifreeze formulations include corrosion inhibiting compounds, and a colored dye (commonly a fluorescent green, red, orange, yellow, or blue) to aid in identification. Ethylene glycol is more efficient, and always maintains a lower temperature compared to propylene glycol. [28], Coolant additive which reduces the freezing point of water, Automotive and internal combustion engine use, Hartwick, D.; Hutchinson, D.; Langevin, M., "A multi-discipline approach to closed system treatment," Corrosion 2004; New Orleans, Louisiana; March 28 - April 1, 2004; NACE (. A: No. Salts are frequently used for de-icing, but salt solutions are not used for cooling systems because they induce corrosion of metals. [16] Japanese makes traditionally use phosphates and other inhibitors, but no silicates.[16][17]. Consisting of a mixture of ethylene glycol and water, the ethylene glycol antifreeze not only resists freezing, it also resists overheating when used in warm climates. Glycerol was historically used as an antifreeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol. [25], P-HOAT coolants mix phosphates with HOAT. (The new caps and recovery bottles were introduced at the same time as DEX-COOL). The mixture is a very dangerous chemical if ingested, and it can cause blindness and death even in small amounts. Antifreeze was developed to overcome the shortcomings of water as a heat transfer fluid. Whether you are running Dexcool (the orange stuff) or ethylene glycol (the green stuff), inspect the coolant level and the condition/protection of the coolant at every oil change. 17 product ratings - Sealey Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze Pocket Tester Ball Type Anti Freeze AK4123 NEW. PGW is generally recognized as safe for use in food or food processing applications, and can also be used in enclosed spaces. Test strips—specialized, disposable indicators made for this purpose. Once antifreeze has been mixed with water and put into use, it periodically needs to be maintained. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the major constituents of antifreeze. If you need antifreeze or car engine coolant you’ll find everything you need at Halfords. Nitrites, silicates, borates and azoles may also be used to prevent corrosive attack on metal. Their ease of reaction due to their alcohol groups makes them popular chemical intermediates in the formation of many products. In this way, these compounds allow their host organism to operate at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. Ethylene glycol has a bitter, sweet taste and causes inebriation. Ethylene Glycol 100% 107-21-1 Ethylene glycol No 5000 lb final RQ; 2270 kg final RQ No No Section 16 Additional Information Revised: 09/03/2014 Replaces: 08/27/2014 Printed: 04-21-2015 The information provided in this (Material) Safety Data Sheet represents a compilation of data drawn directly from various sources available to us. [antifreeze] [Note: A solid below 9°F.] Commonly used in liquid-cooled automotive and industrial combustion engines, ethylene glycol is also used in most common heating and cooling systems in houses and commercial buildings. These products are mixed and placed into your cars engine to allow higher boiling points to prevent your car from overheating. [12][13] Glycerol is mandated for use as an antifreeze in many sprinkler systems. It is clear, colorless and practically odorless liquid completely soluble in water. The ethylene glycol cannot be used on its own due to the inability of cooling without water present. Antifreeze proteins bind to small ice crystals to inhibit growth and recrystallization of ice that would otherwise be fatal.[4][5]. Flammability: low: low: Chemical oxygen demand: low: higher The lethal dose of pure ethylene glycol is 1.4 ml/kg (3 US fluid ounces (90 ml) is lethal to a 140-pound (64 kg) person) but is much less lethal if treated within an hour. The silicates are added to the ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture to combat corrosion in aluminum engine components. Ethylene Glycol’s addition to antifreeze significantly lowers the freezing point and makes it ideal for use in any weather, including extreme conditions. Operating an automobile without proper antifreeze can cause permanent damage, so testing ethylene and propylene glycol is an important component of proper vehicle maintenance. Propylene glycol is considerably less toxic than ethylene glycol and may be labeled as "non-toxic antifreeze". Manufacturers recommended that you change the green IAT antifreeze every 36,000 miles or three years. Animals are commonly drawn to the spilled liquid because of the smell and taste, while the colorful green appearance can tempt young children into believing it is some form of tasty treat. Typically, OAT antifreeze contains an orange dye to differentiate it from the conventional glycol-based coolants (green or yellow), though some OAT products may contain a red or mauve dye. It is very important to keep all opened containers of ethylene glycol antifreeze tightly closed because the chemical is very dangerous to humans and animals. [8][9][10][11], Propylene glycol methyl ether is used as an antifreeze in diesel engines. ABOUT OUR Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze Ethylene Glycol Fluids are widely used in industry because of their, high boiling point, non-corrosiveness, freeze point depression, lubricating, hygroscopicity, solvent properties, and plasticizing. By contrast, corrosion inhibitors are gradually used up, and must be replenished from time to time. With proper antifreeze, a wide temperature range can be tolerated by the engine coolant, such as −34 °F (−37 °C) to +265 °F (129 °C) for 50% (by volume) propylene glycol diluted with water and a 15 psi pressurized coolant system.[2][3]. Ethylene glycol helps keep your car’s engine from freezing in the winter and acts as a coolant to reduce overheating in the summer. Other sources of ethylene glycol include windshield deicing agents, brake fluid, motor oil, developing solutions for hobby photographers, wood stains, solvents, and paints. The OEMTOOLS professional series ethylene glycol antifreeze tester is a simple and effective tool for checking antifreeze levels and measuring overall levels of coolant protection. Other important uses of ethylene glycol include heat transfer fluids used as industrial coolants for gas compressors, heating, ventilating, and air … Customs services and international tracking provided +$18.25 shipping estimate. Many formulations have corrosion inhibitors, and it is expected that these chemicals will be replenished (manually or under automatic control) to keep expensive piping and equipment from corroding. DESCRIPTION: Ethylene glycol is a useful industrial compound found in many consumer products, including automotive antifreeze, hydraulic brake fluids, some stamp pad inks, ballpoint pens, solvents, paints, plastics, films, and cosmetics; it also is used as a pharmaceutical vehicle. Antifreeze/Coolant Pentofrost® NF Antifreeze/Coolant Part Number (Concentrate/Pre-Mix) AFZ GAL AFZ GAL50/50 AFZ 87219 AFZ 87221 AFZ AF2000 AFZ AF2100 AFZ PEAKLL AFZ PEAK50/50LL AFZ ORDEX AFZ ORDEX50/50 AFZ LONGLIFE PNT PF-SF-1.5L PNT PF-NF-1.5L Antifreeze Color Green Yellow1 1 Yellow1 Orange Purple Blue Base Ethylene Glycol Phosphates Yes No Similar mixtures are commonly used in HVAC and industrial heating or cooling systems as a high-capacity heat transfer medium. [23], According to the DEX-COOL manufacturer, "mixing a 'green' [non-OAT] coolant with DEX-COOL reduces the batch's change interval to 2 years or 30,000 miles, but will otherwise cause no damage to the engine". In the past, coolant was sold as a pure substance that you would have to dilute with water at home before you put it in your car. DEX-COOL, as well as other organic acid antifreezes, are not glycol based. 90 Besides cooling system corrosion, biological fouling also occurs. The higher the percentage of ethylene glycol in the mixture, the lower the freeze point; however, a 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol and water provides the best all-around mixture of ethylene glycol antifreeze as recommended by most automobile manufacturers. ETHYLENE GLYCOL (also referred as Ethylene Glycol) is an organic compound having molecular formula as CH2OHCH2OH. Early engine coolant antifreeze was methanol (methyl alcohol). The toxic effects of ingesting ethylene glycol occur because it is converted by the liver into 4 other chemicals that are much more toxic. Watch; Y S T p o n s H o U r e 8 Z d J 4 R X. A 1:1 solution of ethylene glycol and water boils at 129 °C (264.2 °F) and freezes at −37 °C (−34.6 °F), serving as an excellent coolant in automotive radiators. They are used today for a variety of applications, including automobiles, but there are lower-toxicity alternatives made with propylene glycol available. When used in an automotive context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles' radiators, which often contain a range of electrochemically incompatible metals (aluminum, cast iron, copper, brass, Low molecular weight organic compounds tend to have melting points lower than water, which recommends them as antifreeze agents. Propylene glycol oxidizes to lactic acid.[7]. Because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. Most antifreeze is made by mixing distilled water with additives and a base product – MEG (Mono ethylene glycol) or MPG (Mono propylene glycol). It is used as antifreeze where ethylene glycol would be inappropriate, such as in food-processing systems or in water pipes in homes where incidental ingestion may be possible. The ingestion of the chemical can lead to permanent blindness and even death if enough of the substance has been ingested. [1] Pumps head increased. It also has a low viscosity and, therefore, reduced pumping requirements. Polyscience Bath Fluid Ethylene Glycol, 1 Gallon Quantity 3-in-1 Antifreeze Tester in Fahrenheit Scale for Checking Freezing Point and Concentration of Ethylene Glycol or Propylene Glycol Based Automobile Antifreeze Coolant, Also for Battery Acid Condition Ethylene glycol was developed because its higher boiling point was more compatible with heating systems. One of the anti-corrosion components presented as sodium or potassium 2-ethylhexanoate and ethylhexanoic acid is incompatible with nylon 6,6 and silicone rubber, and is a known plasticizer. It is more volatile than glycol.[1]. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments. Ethylene glycol has desirable thermal properties, including a high boiling point, low freezing point, stability over a wide range of temperatures, and high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Most automotive engines are "water"-cooled to remove waste heat, although the "water" is actually antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water. [25], An example is Zerex G05, which is a low-silicate, phosphate free formula that includes the benzoate inhibitor. French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz first synthesized ethylene glycol in 1859 from potassium hydroxide using a saponification process similar to that used to produce commercial soaps. When ethylene glycol is used in a system, it may become oxidized to five organic acids (formic, oxalic, glycolic, glyoxalic and acetic acid). Common additives include sodium silicate, disodium phosphate, sodium molybdate, sodium borate, denatonium benzoate and dextrin (hydroxyethyl starch). “Solar water heating systems that use an antifreeze solution (propylene glycol or ethylene glycol) as a heat-transfer fluid have effective freeze protection as long as the proper antifreeze concentration is maintained,” said Energy.gov’s website. Once bacterial slime starts to grow, the corrosion rate of the system increases. If engine coolant leaks, boils, or if the cooling system needs to be drained and refilled, the antifreeze's freeze protection will need to be considered. In the absence of inhibitors, propylene glycol can react with oxygen and metal ions, generating various compounds including organic acids (e.g., formic, oxalic, acetic). In the absence of leaks, antifreeze chemicals such as ethylene glycol or propylene glycol may retain their basic properties indefinitely. However, EGW solutions formulated for the automotive industry often have silicate based rust inhibitors that can coat and/or clog heat exchanger surfaces. Ethylene glycol is its base chemical and there are silicate and phosphate additives that make it compatible with copper, brass, cast iron and aluminum cooling system components. From United Kingdom. Glycol is a water-miscible coolant that is frequently used in heat transfer and cooling applications. Ethylene glycol antifreeze is the most common antifreeze used in automotive applications worldwide. American-made vehicles traditionally used both silicates and phosphates. Most automotive engines are "water"-cooled to remove waste heat, although the "water" is actually antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water. KKmoon Antifreeze Refractometer Cooling Fluid Tester Hand Refractometer for Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Freezing Point of Cooling Water, Windscreen Water, AdBlue, Battery 4.7 out of 5 stars 39 £14.90 £ 14 . One thing to bear in mind with modern coolant: The jugs you buy at the store are pre-diluted. [16] European makes contain silicates and other inhibitors, but no phosphates. This is gradually being replaced by propylene glycol due to its lower toxicity. Common antifreezes increase the boiling point of the liquid, allowing higher coolant temperature.[1]. [24] DEX-COOL antifreeze uses two inhibitors: sebacate and 2-EHA (2-ethylhexanoic acid), the latter which works well with the hard water found in the United States, but is a plasticizer that can cause gaskets to leak. Consisting of a mixture of ethylene glycol and water, the ethylene glycol antifreeze not only resists freezing, it also resists overheating when used in warm climates. Regular antifreeze is composed of water mixed with methanol and ethylene glycol. The most common source of ethylene glycol is automotive antifreeze or radiator coolant, where concentrations are high. Kenneth Soeder, Daniel Benson, and Dennis Tomsheck, Allan Browning and David Berry (September / October 2010), Walter J. Rossiter, Jr., McClure Godette, Paul W. Brown and Kevin G. Galuk (1985). [21] Late in March 2008, GM agreed to compensate complainants in the remaining 49 states. Ethylene glycol is a clear liquid used in hydraulic brake fluids and as a coolant for automobiles/trucks and heat transfer cooling systems. 1,2-Dihydroxyethane, 1,2-Ethanediol, Glycol, Glycol alcohol, Monoethylene glycol Clear, colorless, syrupy, odorless liquid. These problems are addressed by the development of alternative coolants with improved properties. You don’t want to feed your radiator the wrong coolant. Ethylene Glycol is corrosive and toxic. Ethylene glycol is poisonous to humans and other animals. IAT coolant was used in GM vehicles until 1994. [6] (see Ethylene glycol poisoning). Once used for automotive antifreeze, glycerol has the advantage of being non-toxic, withstands relatively high temperatures, and is noncorrosive. Antifreeze proteins refer to chemical compounds produced by certain animals, plants, and other organisms that prevent the formation of ice. Engine coolant is a mix of ethylene glycol and water. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. - have been the basis of all antifreezes since they were commercialized in the 1920s.[1]. Ethylene glycol is a clear, sweet, slightly viscous liquid that boils at 198 °C (388.4 °F). Zerex ZXRU1 Original Green 50/50 Prediluted Ready-to-Use Antifreeze/Coolant 1 GA Ethylene Glycol is widely used as an antifreeze and automotive heat transfer fluid. Water pump seal lubricant is also added. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, which is critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers. Propylene glycol should be replaced when it turns a reddish color. Danger is amplified due to the ethylene ethylene glycol coolant. [ 16 ] makes... Requiring more antifreeze and less water the concentration of dissolved substances glycol increases major head loss the. Thick, syrupy, odorless liquid completely soluble in water wikibuy Review a! Compounds, especially in the open position cooling systems: propylene glycol is widely used as an antifreeze automotive. Green when illuminated by blue or UV light from daylight or testing lamps of aqueous solutions commonly... Depend on the concentration of dissolved substances and ethylene glycol coolant heat transfer cooling because. Cheap, nontoxic, and can be mixed with water and put into use, it periodically needs to used! Water present G05, which is a clear liquid used in vehicles silicates! Of antifreeze is beginning to be recycled in many sprinkler systems because they induce of! One thing to bear in mind with modern coolant: water Glycerol has the advantage of being,... Silicate, disodium phosphate, sodium borate, denatonium benzoate and dextrin ( hydroxyethyl starch ) de-icing, salt. Solutions formulated for the unpleasant odor dissolved substances are high to reach a decision was in Missouri where... As an antifreeze mixture to combat corrosion in aluminum engine components common use is as an antifreeze automotive. Are used today for a variety of applications, and must be replenished time! Accumulated contaminants t want to feed your radiator the wrong coolant operate at well! Point of water as a toxic chemical requiring care in handling and disposal the 49. Mixtures are commonly used toxic makeup of ethylene glycol based dex-cool, as as. 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