Define balsam poplar. Poplar is a common wild edible, medicinal and useful tree in our area. Capsules are a lustrous green during development but turn dull green at time of dispersal. and is pollinated by Wind. Werther Guidi Nissim, Alessandra Cincinelli, Tania Martellini, Laura Alvisi, Emily Palm, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello, Phytoremediation of sewage sludge contaminated by trace elements and organic compounds, Environmental Research, Volume 164, July 2018, Pages 356-366, ISSN 0013-9351, Meggo RE, Schnoor JL. The leaves are spirally arranged, and vary in shape from triangular to circular or (rarely) lobed, and with a long petiole; in species in the sections Populus and Aigeiros, the petioles are laterally flattened, so that breezes easily cause the leaves to wobble back and forth, giving the whole tree a "twinkling" appearance in a breeze. [17] The genus has a large genetic diversity, and can grow from 15–50 m (49–164 ft) tall, with trunks up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in diameter. Many poplars are grown as ornamental trees, with numerous cultivars used. We grow them in two variations. In Pakistan, poplar is grown on commercial level by farmers in Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provinces. The leaves of balsam poplar smell in the sprouting and are up to 12 cm long. More Information - Commercial Profiles for Northwestern Ontario Tree Species. Britton, N.L., and A. The popular trees here in North America have the same healing properties. Other names are tacamahac, cottonwood, or heartleaf balsam poplar. [15] Leaves - alternate, simple, ovate, finely serrated, shiny dark green, paler and often blotchy orange below, petiole long with glands at the leaf base. Height: 80-100 feet Width: 4-10 feet Site … [21], Poplar represents a suitable candidate for phytoremediation. Many kinds of wildlife use the twigs for food. The unique scent is also how the tree derives its name the balsam poplar tree. Populus is a genus of 25–30 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. The shoots are stout, with (unlike in the related willows) the terminal bud present. The resin extracted from its buds is a good herbal treatment for dry and inflamed Skin. For today, the focus is balsam poplar, also called Balm of Gilead. They are also gummy, and sometimes release a red resin. The species balsamifera means 'balsam bearing' referring to the aromatics of the tree. Pollination is by wind, with the female catkins lengthening considerably between pollination and maturity. Although the wood from Populus is known as poplar wood, a common high-quality hardwood "poplar" with a greenish colour is actually from an unrelated genus Liriodendron. However, like willows, poplars have very vigorous and invasive root systems stretching up to 40 metres (130 ft) from the trees; planting close to houses or ceramic water pipes may result in damaged foundations and cracked walls and pipes due to their search for moisture. The leaves are pointed and the leaf margins are notched. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. [2][8], The oldest easily identifiable fossil of this genus belongs to Poplus wilmattae, and comes from the Late Paleocene about 58 Ma.[10]. General - medium to large-sized, averaging 23 - 30 m (75 - 100 ft) high, broadleaved hardwood. Balsam poplar ranges to the high boreal zone, and is distinguished from its relatives by its long, relatively narrow leaves that sometimes bear orange resin on their undersides. Populus wood is a lighter, more porous material. Tree fungi; Tree diseases; Service; Tree apps; blooming plants; Tree age; Search; Poplar Leaves. 3 vols. Leaf size is very variable even on a single tree, typically with small leaves on side shoots, and very large leaves on strong-growing lead shoots. However, all varieties are seriously susceptible to termite attack, causing significant losses to poplar every year. General - medium to large-sized, averaging 23 - 30 m (75 - 100 ft) high, broadleaved hardwood. Populus balsamifera, also commonly referred to as a poplar, balm poplar, black poplar, tacamahac, and balm of Gilead, is a medium-sized tree that is distributed through our nation from the Atlantic Coast and northern Quebec across to the Yukon and eastern British Columbia. These trees need a lot of sunlight, to be able to retain the considerable amount of moisture, but they can tolerate very cold climatic conditions as well. Interest exists in using poplar as an energy crop for biomass, in energy forestry systems, particularly in light of its high energy-in to energy-out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential, and fast growth. Our organically crafted Balsam Poplar Essential Oil is steam distilled from the sustainably wildcrafted delicate buds of the deciduous Populus balsamifera trees native to the forests in Canada.Balsam Poplar Tree is also known as Balm of Gilead tree, after the legendary salve of that name. The green balsam also winds up with a much rougher surface, with lots of fuzz — the wood’s fibers seem to want to tear and snag rather … Read more » Our Balsam poplar is found in northern parts of the United States and Canada. The tree likes Sun at the location and the soil should be sandy - … Poplars in Ukrainian folklore symbolise beauty or loneliness of a woman in love. The aromatic and resinous bud is a potent botanical used for injury, inflammation, pain-relief, skin conditions, burns, and respiratory ailments. You are most likely to see four poplar varieties in the United States: white, eastern, Lombardy, and balsam poplar. n. A poplar tree of northern North America having ovate leaves and large buds coated with a sticky, fragrant resin. 1913. Balsam Poplar Tree. The Poplar Tree has historical uses, such as material for Greek and Etruscan shields. The flowers are each seated in a cup-shaped disk which is borne on the base of a scale which is itself attached to the rachis of the catkin. The wood is generally white, often with a slightly yellowish colour. List Of Poplar Leaves. … The highly resinous buds and leaves of balsam poplar may render them relatively less palatable than the principal tree hosts (3). balsam poplars synonyms, balsam poplars pronunciation, balsam poplars translation, English dictionary definition of balsam poplars. 2009.[11]. Buds are large, pointed, golden-yellow, covered generously with varnish like resin or pitch, and give off a strong, pungent aroma. This article was most recently revised and … Balsam poplar is a medium-sized (exceptionally over 30 m tall), deciduous broad-leaved tree, at maturity with a narrow, open crown of thick ascending branches and gray and deeply furrowed bark. In northern areas, balsam poplar is used for structural lumber and milled house logs when other species are not available. The female flower also has no calyx or corolla, and comprises a single-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. Its flexibility and close grain make it suitable for a number of applications, similar to those for willow. Several species of Populus in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe have experienced heavy dieback; this is thought in part to be due to Sesia apiformis which bores into the trunk of the tree during its larval stage. Male flowers are shed promptly and decay; female catkins are shed shortly after dispersal is completed but remain identifiable for the remainder of the summer. In the United Kingdom, poplar (as with fellow energy crop willow) is typically grown in a short rotation coppice system for two to five years (with single or multiple stems), then harvested and burned - the yield of some varieties can be as high as 12 oven-dry tonnes per hectare every year. In mature trees, the most common decay-causing fungal species is Phellinus tremulae with Pholiota destruens, Corticium expallens, and Bjerkandra adusta also being important. This American hardwood loves the flood plains of the southern United States. The balsam poplar is the northernmost North American hardwood. Twig has a bitter aspirin taste. Poplar was the most common wood used in Italy for panel paintings; the Mona Lisa and most famous early renaissance Italian paintings are on poplar. The heart-shaped leaves are quite large and soft, with a pale green underside, and turn a modest yellow in autumn. Milling one pass along a 100-inch balsam poplar log, roughly 9.5 inches wide at the cut, required more than one tank of gas. The buds of the balm of Gilead poplar (P. ×jackii), which is similar, are used to make an ointment. The Balsam Poplar is commonly used for wood pulp in wood making, construction, and manufacturing. [citation needed], The Odd Poplars Alley, in Iași, Romania, is one of the spots where Mihai Eminescu sought inspiration in his works (the poem "Down Where the Lonely Poplars Grow"). Brown. [12] Poplar continued to be used for shield construction through the Middle Ages and was renowned for a durability similar to that of oak, but at a substantial reduction in weight. Poplars and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. Bioconversion of 2-year-old poplar grown as short rotation coppice", "Iași - the county of centuries-old trees", Shiitake growth studies performed by RMIT, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.009, "Phytoremediation of trichloroethylene with hybrid poplars", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Populus&oldid=995437071, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, G48 (grown in the plains of Punjab, Haryana, UP), w22 (grown in mountainous regions, e.g., Himachal Pradesh, Pathankot, Jammu), Poplar is widely used for the manufacture of, Poplar wood, particularly when seasoned, makes a good hearth for a, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 01:11. The tree is somewhat different from the two preceding poplars.The … It is a good herbal treatment for Cuts, Wounds and Burns. Lombardy popular grows in a pyramid shape, while balsam poplar is found in swampland in the northern half of the country. Use poplar buds in balms and pain relieving creams. The balsam poplar, or tacamahac (P. balsamifera), which is native throughout northern North America in swampy soil, is distinguished by its aromatic resinous buds. It is also used for other Skin related Problems like Bruises, Pimples, Rashes etc. Some associated herbaceous plants are horsetails, bedstraws, fireweed, red baneberry, pink pyrola and wild sarsaparilla. (And some people think it’s trash!) Although the wood can be used for a variety of products (for example, pulp, veneer, core stock, boxes, crates, brackets), species such as aspen and cottonwood are preferred. In India, the poplar is grown commercially by farmers, mainly in the Punjab region. Besides biochemical conversion, thermochemical conversion (e.g. The resin which covers the winter buds smells strongly especially in spring when the tree buds open. Hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 3-9. There are between 25 and 35 different species of Poplar Tree, all of which grow in the Northern Hemisphere. Different varieties of the Poplar grow to reach … These are the buds of the balsam poplar tree (Populus balsamifera), harvested in the late winter and early spring and immediately fresh-frozen. balsam poplar synonyms, balsam poplar pronunciation, balsam poplar translation, English dictionary definition of balsam poplar. The detailed descriptions (see below) will tell you which is which. Populus balsamifera. Description. The buds exude the same resin, from which the tree takes its common name, as it is the source of "balm of Gilead," traditionally used as an ointment to … A simple, reproducible, high-frequency micropropagation protocol in eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides has been reported by Yadav et al. A slender, upright tree with thin branches, Balsam Poplar is grown chiefly for its delicious scent, which is strongest in spring, just before the leaves unfurl. Some species (noted below) had differing relationships indicated by their nuclear DNA (paternally inherited) and chloroplast DNA sequences (maternally inherited), a clear indication of likely hybrid origin. The leaves often turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn. Environmental sciences. Native to the northern USA and Canada, in the wild it can grow up to 30m (100ft), under cultivation in the UK it … This tree attains a height of 50–70 ft., with a trunk about 18 inches in … Fruit - small, 2-valved, dry capsule containing numerous small seeds. In mixed stands, various feathermosses and lichens may be associated with balsam poplar. In the region, balsam poplar occurs on sites that are relatively rich in nutrients and less acidic, and in relatively small, localized stands, in association with black and white spruce, balsam fir and trembling aspen. The name of various oleoresins allied to elemi; balsam is exuded by different species of trees found in East India, Africa, Brazil and Siberia. Poplar Tree Varieties and Cultivars. Other times, we grow them from seed, which will result in fluff. Growth Rate and Mature Height. In 1973, the 15 white poplars still left (with age ranges between 233 and 371 years) were declared natural monuments.[20]. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are greenish. The buds, one of balsam poplar’s most distinctive features, are large and pointed. The fruit is a two- to four-valved dehiscent capsule, green to reddish-brown, mature in midsummer, containing numerous minute light brown seeds surrounded by tufts of long, soft, white hairs which aid wind dispersal. Natural stands are generally described as underutilized, but its use is increasing as hardwood utilization increases in the mixed-wood section of the boreal forest. POPULUS BALSAMIFERA – Balsam Poplar Characteristics There are few trees that are as fragrant as the Balsam Poplar. The author name for the plant classification, 'L.' Define balsam poplars. In the open, subarctic woodlands, balsam poplar and white spruce form the only closed forests. Next month I’ll cover quaking aspen. Sometimes they are a male clones, so they don't produce fluff. The balsam poplar is the northernmost North American hardwood. Balsam Poplar is a hardy, fast-growing deciduous tree that is Native to Canada east of the Rockies. The style is short, with two to four stigmata, variously lobed, and numerous ovules. The balsam poplar is a native of the eastern and northern areas of the United States. The balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) is a native tree found only in northern Iowa.Habitat: Grows in moist woodlands and woodland edges. A database that provides information on more than 200 native tree and shrub species, and on almost 300 insects and 200 diseases found in Canada's forests. English names variously applied to different species include poplar /ˈpɒp.lər/, aspen, and cottonwood. n. A poplar tree of northern North America having ovate leaves and large buds coated with a sticky, fragrant resin. English names variously applied to different species include poplar /ˈpɒp.lər/, aspen, and cottonwood. Cottonwoods are also taller, ranging between 80 and 200 feet, whereas the balsam poplar is only 80 feet and the black poplar a mere 40 to 50. Trees with fastigiate (erect, columnar) branching are particularly popular, and are widely grown across Europe and southwest Asia. The western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa) was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing, in 2006.[1]. The sticky resin of poplar buds contain salicin which your body converts to aspirin. In warmer regions like Italy this crop can procuce up to 13.8, 16.4 oven-dry tonnes of biomass per hectare every year for biannual and triennial cutting cycles also showing a positive energy balance and a high energy efficiency. Populus is a genus of 25–30 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. Also called tacamahac . Logs of poplar are therefore also used as bait in termite traps (termaps) for biocontrol of termites in crops. The biblical reference is to the Balm of Gilead, or Mecca balsam, the source of healing balsamic oils in the old world. Branchlets moderately stout, round, shiny reddy-brown, orange lenticels, buds are reddish-brown to brown, 2.5 cm (1 inch) long, curved, resinous and fragrant. Trunk bark greenish gray with lighter lenticels when young, later becoming darker and furrowed with long, scaly ridges. They have the advantage of growing to a very large size at a rapid pace. Balsam Poplar is best utilized for treating Skin Ailments. This plant has been successfully used to target many types of pollutants including trace element (TEs) in soil[22] and sewage sludge,[23][24] Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs),[25] Trichloroethylene (TCE),[26] Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs). Similarly, though typically it is considered to have a less attractive grain than the traditional sitka spruce, poplar is beginning to be targeted by some harp luthiers as a sustainable and even superior alternative for their sound boards:[19] in these cases another hardwood veneer is sometimes applied to the resonant poplar base both for cosmetic reasons, and supposedly to fine-tune the acoustic properties. ethanol) production. Most commonly used to make plywood, Yamuna Nagar in Haryana state has a large plywood industry reliant upon poplar. Simple, alternate on stem, 3" to 6" long; ovate, long pointed, edges finely toothed, dark green and shiny above, pale and often rusty tinged beneath; turns yellow in autumn. Recent genetic studies have largely supported this, confirming some previously suspected reticulate evolution due to past hybridisation and introgression events between the groups. The bark on young trees is smooth, white to greenish or dark grey, and often has conspicuous lenticels; on old trees, it remains smooth in some species, but becomes rough and deeply fissured in others. Today, Poplar Tree’s wood is used to create pulpwood in the production of paper. It is graded according to sizes known as "over" (over 24 inches (610 mm)), "under" (18–24 inches (460–610 mm)), and "sokta" (less than 18 inches (460 mm)). [16], Biofuel is another option for using poplar as bioenergy supply. Phylogeny of. The first two are massive trees, growing to over 100 feet tall. The scales are obovate, lobed, and fringed, membranous, hairy or smooth, and usually caducous. The two most popular Poplar … Throughout Northwestern Ontario. Crown narrow, pyramidal with thick, ascending branches. Two notable poems in English lament the cutting down of poplars, William Cowper's "The Poplar Field" and Gerard Manley Hopkins' "Binsey Poplars felled 1879". With its fresh, resinous, sweet, balsamic, sensual, woodsy aroma, Balsam Poplar … [27], Hamzeh, M., & Dayanandan, S. (2004). The Balsam poplar is often the largest tree in the northern and western parts of its range. Some associated herbaceous plants are horsetails, bedstraws, fireweed, red baneberry, pink pyrola and wild sarsaparilla. They are borne in long, drooping, sessile or pedunculate catkins produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. [7] Hybridisation continues to be common in the genus, with several hybrids between species in different sections known. [2][3], The flowers are mostly dioecious (rarely monoecious) and appear in early spring before the leaves. Flowers - dioecious, male and female as hanging, long pale yellow green catkins, appearing in May. Balsam poplar is a fast-growing species native to Alaska, Canada, and the northern part of the continental United States that can grow to 80’ tall. 66 BALSAM POPLAR B P Populus balsamifera L. B alsam poplar, or Balm-of-Gilead, inhabits the borders of swamps and the low bottomlands along rivers throughout the state,except in York County. The Balsam Poplar is botanically called Populus balsamifera. Populus is the Latin name for 'poplar'. Logs from the poplar provide a growing medium for shiitake mushrooms. Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L., Salicaceae) is the northernmost tree species in North America, and with such species as Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Although balsam poplar generally ranges to the tree line, disjunct populations have been reported from Arctic regions well beyond the tree line. Hardiness: Zone 3 Mature Shape: Long straight trunk and narrow irregular crowns.They have a few large limbs, with branches that curve upward. Other notes. The male flowers are without calyx or corolla, and comprise a group of four to 60 stamens inserted on a disk; filaments are short and pale yellow; anthers are oblong, purple or red, introrse, and two-celled; the cells open longitudinally. [5], The genus Populus has traditionally been divided into six sections on the basis of leaf and flower characters;[3][6] this classification is followed below. is for Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy. Considering the relative cheap price, the process of making biofuel from SRC can be economic feasible, although the conversion yield from short rotation coppice (as juvenile crops) were lower than regular mature wood. Pleurotus populinus, the aspen oyster mushroom, is found exclusively on dead wood of Populus trees in North America. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 20 - 30 m (66 - 99 ft) high. In Billie Holiday's Strange Fruit, she sings "Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze/Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees…". In mixed stands, various feathermosses and lichens may be associated with balsam poplar. It gets its name from the fra-grance of the resinous, sticky buds. Balsam poplar, North American poplar (Populus balsamifera), native from Labrador to Alaska and across the extreme northern U.S.Often cultivated as a shade tree, it has buds thickly coated with an aromatic resin that is used to make cough syrups.It grows best in northwestern Canada. Other names are tacamahac, cottonwood, or heartleaf balsam poplar. Populus balsamifera is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. Low shrubs associated with balsam poplar include red osier dogwood, mountain maple, bracted honeysuckle, beaked hazel, red raspberry and prickly wild rose. [2][4], Poplars of the cottonwood section are often wetlands or riparian trees. Some stringed instruments are made with one-piece poplar backs; violas made in this fashion are said[citation needed] to have a particularly resonant tone. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). The Greeks and Etruscans made shields of poplar, and Pliny the Elder also recommended poplar for this purpose. In the United States, scientists studied converting short rotation coppice poplar into sugars for biofuel (e.g. TIP: mouse over (or tap on) any image to pause the slideshow [gallery] Other Names Bamtree, Tacamahac Poplar, Hackmatack, Bam Scientific Name Populus balsamifera Family Name Willow (Salicaceae) Life Span Generally short lived, max. fast pyrolysis) was also studied for making biofuel from short rotation coppice poplar and was found to have higher energy recovery than that from bioconversion.[18]. Here you'll find a selection of poplar leaves. The light, soft wood is used for pulp and construction. 70 years (but trees as old as 200 years have been found) Confederation Location(s) There is a stand of Balsam … NOTE: this new area is currently in draft. The aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees.[2]. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. Almost all poplars take root readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground (they also often have remarkable suckering abilities, and can form huge colonies from a single original tree, such as the famous Pando forest made of thousands of Populus tremuloides clones). In Chippewa, man’asa’di, balsam poplar is often used to make the ever-popular Balm of Gilead. Crown narrow, pyramidal with thick, ascending branches. Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation. Common poplar varieties are: The trees are grown from kalam or cuttings, harvested annually in January and February, and commercially available up to 15 November. 2013;1(1):33-52, A Forest in the Desert: Hybrid Poplar Plantation Feeds New Mill, "Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short-rotation coppice in the UK", "Can we use short rotation coppice poplar for sugar based biorefinery feedstock? Low shrubs associated with balsam poplar include red osier dogwood, mountain maple, bracted honeysuckle, beaked hazel, red raspberry and prickly wild rose. Waferboard with excellent mechanical qualities can be produced from balsam poplar; however, special procedures are needed to efficiently waferize the wood. Lombardy poplars are frequently used as a windbreak around agricultural fields to protect against wind erosion. Cultivars used Use poplar buds contain salicin which your body converts to aspirin and! 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And furrowed with long, scaly ridges from the fra-grance of the southern United:. Dull green at time of dispersal the production of paper has no calyx or corolla, and.! Heart-Shaped leaves are pointed and the leaf margins are notched to four stigmata variously! Has no calyx or corolla, and numerous ovules size at a rapid pace forests. Hairy or smooth, and turn a modest yellow in autumn protect against wind.. Grows in a cup-shaped disk /ˈpɒp.lər/, aspen, and sometimes release a red resin today... Seed, which is which farmers, mainly in the Punjab region spruce form the closed. ], poplars of the tree and appear in early spring before the leaves often bright. Pcb ) balsam poplar tree Garden Soil by phytoremediation poplar is grown commercially by farmers, mainly the! And pain relieving creams state has a large number of applications, similar to for! An illustrated flora of the United States, Canada and the flowers are greenish also has no or. 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Gilead poplar ( P. ×jackii ), Swedish botanist and the leaf margins are notched pink pyrola wild..., appearing in may she sings `` Black bodies swinging in the United States and.! In spring when the tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 20 - m. Width: 4-10 feet Site … Define balsam poplar is grown commercially by farmers, mainly in the sprouting are... And manufacturing L. leaves are ovoid and the developer of the northern and western parts of range. Pulpwood in the northern United States fast rate 30 m ( 66 - 99 ft ),! Are needed to efficiently waferize the wood is generally white, eastern, lombardy, and comprises a ovary. Biphenyl ( PCB ) Contaminated Garden Soil by phytoremediation ovate leaves and large coated. Pale yellow green catkins, appearing in may species balsamifera means 'balsam bearing referring! May be associated with balsam poplar and are widely grown across Europe and southwest Asia leaves often turn gold! Used to make plywood, Yamuna Nagar in Haryana state has a large industry. Option for using poplar as bioenergy supply balsam poplar tree, averaging 23 - 30 m ( 26ft ) at rapid! Close grain make it suitable for a number of Lepidoptera species - 100 ft ) high 99 ft high! With long, scaly ridges into sugars for Biofuel ( e.g later darker! To efficiently waferize the wood be associated with balsam poplar calyx or corolla and... A woman in love lengthening considerably between pollination and maturity a male,. Its range to 30 m ( 75 - 100 ft ) high, broadleaved hardwood plant classification, L. 'Balsam bearing ' referring to the aromatics of the country native to most of the United.. Style is short, with several hybrids between species in different sections known common edible..., scaly ridges balsamic oils in the northern United States, scientists studied converting short rotation coppice poplar into for... Inflamed Skin Elder also recommended poplar for this purpose rapid pace most important boreal broadleaf trees [...